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Cassano all'Ionio caves (Cassano allo Ionio caves), Cassano all'Ionio (Cassano allo Ionio), Cosenza Province, Calabria, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Cassano all'Ionio caves (Cassano allo Ionio caves)Group of Caves
Cassano all'Ionio (Cassano allo Ionio)Municipality
Cosenza ProvinceProvince
CalabriaRegion
ItalyCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
39° 47' 19'' North , 16° 18' 27'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Caves
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Cassano Allo Ionio11,560 (2018)1.9km
Civita903 (2014)4.4km
Varco d'Amendola121 (2014)5.7km
Frascineto2,227 (2014)6.3km
Caccianova110 (2014)7.2km
Other Languages:
Italian:
Grotte di Cassano all'Ionio (Grotte di Cassano allo Ionio), Cassano all'Ionio (Cassano allo Ionio; Cassano allo Jonio), Provincia di Cosenza, Calabria, Italia


Hypogenic caves in the karst area of Monte San Marco.

The complex of the Sant'Angelo caves, that is the largest one, is made up of three caves: Grotta Superiore di Sant’Angelo, Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo, and Grotta Sopra leGrotte di Sant’Angelo. This cave system, developed in Triassic dark-grey dolostones, is composed of well-ramified caves with sub-horizontal levels and deep shafts carved by sulfuric acid speleogenetic processes. The lower levels, nowadays used as spa, present a still active flow of rising thermal waters.

The floor of Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo is littered with deposits of heterogeneous alluvial material and filled with guano deposits, gypsum that was partially quarried in the past, and many speleothems that also cover the walls. The primary minerals belonging to carbonates, sulfates, oxides and hydroxides, halides, phosphates, and silicates result from the interactions of cave atmosphere or water with thekarst rocks and the nearby metamorphic (phyllite) and sedimentary (conglomerates) rocks. Phosphates in the cave are scattered, and they occur in sections of the cave where bat guano supplied phosphate ions. The presence of halite and sylvite over the gypsum is related to a period of strong evaporation when the cave was no longer flooded by meteoric water. Finally, trioctahedral smectite (sauconite) found in clay-bearing carbonate speleothems could be of authigenic origin. Clay minerals (phlogophite, montmorillonite, and sauconite) and the detrital minerals enstatite, rutile, magnesite, pyrite, chrysotile, quartz, dolomite, and chlinoclore originated from the surrounding carbonate rocks and conglomerates.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
EuropeContinent

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


26 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Brucite
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Reference: D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Enstatite
Formula: MgSiO3
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61.
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Jervis, G. (1874) I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 2: Regione dell’Appennino e vulcani attivi e spenti dipendentivi. Ermanno Loescher, Torino, XVIII+624 pp.; Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., and White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-24; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Halite
Formula: NaCl
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., and White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-24; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61.
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., and White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-24; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Sauconite
Formula: Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.
Sylvite
Formula: KCl
Reference: Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61.
Tamarugite
Formula: NaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., and White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-24; D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Halite3.AA.20NaCl
Sylvite3.AA.20KCl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Brucite4.FE.05Mg(OH)2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hexahydrite7.CB.25MgSO4 · 6H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Tamarugite7.CC.10NaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysotile9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Enstatite9.DA.05MgSiO3
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sauconite9.EC.45Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
X(OH)2
Brucite6.2.1.1Mg(OH)2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Halite9.1.1.1NaCl
Sylvite9.1.1.2KCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Tamarugite29.5.3.1NaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hexahydrite29.6.8.1MgSO4 · 6H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Enstatite65.1.2.1MgSiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Chrysotile71.1.5.1Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sauconite71.3.1b.3Na0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H BruciteMg(OH)2
H HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
O RutileTiO2
O HematiteFe2O3
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O BruciteMg(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O EnstatiteMgSiO3
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Na HaliteNaCl
MgMagnesium
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg BruciteMg(OH)2
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg EnstatiteMgSiO3
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
AlAluminium
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Si EnstatiteMgSiO3
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si ChrysotileMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
S PyriteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
S HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S SulphurS8
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Cl SylviteKCl
Cl HaliteNaCl
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K SylviteKCl
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
ZnZinc
Zn SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Jervis, G. (1874) I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 2: Regione dell’Appennino e vulcani attivi e spenti dipendentivi. Ermanno Loescher, Torino, XVIII+624 pp.
Galdenzi, S. (1997) Initial geologic observations in caves bordering the Sibari plain (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 59, 2, 81–86.
Catalano, M., Bloise, A., Miriello, D., Apollaro, C., Critelli, T., Muto, F., Cazzanelli, E., and Barrese, E. (2014) The mineralogical study of the Grotta Inferiore di Sant’Angelo (southern Italy). Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, 76, 1, 51-61.
D’Angeli, M.I., De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Parise, M., Madonia, G., and Vattano, M. (2017) Secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. In: Moore, K., and White, S. (eds.), Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Speleology, Sidney, NSW, Australia, July 22-28, 2017. Australian Speleological Federation Inc., Sideney, Vol.1, 237-241
D'Angeli, I. M., Carbone, C., Nagostinis, M., Parise, M., Vattano, M., Madonia, G., and De Waele, J. (2018) New insights on secondary minerals from Italian sulfuric acid caves. International Journal of Speleology, 47, 3, 271-291.


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