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Faraglioni di Levante (Grotte dei Faraglioni; Grotte del Faraglione; "Grotte de Faraglione"), Porto Levante, Vulcano Island, Lipari, Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands), Messina Province, Sicily, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Faraglioni di Levante (Grotte dei Faraglioni; Grotte del Faraglione; "Grotte de Faraglione")- not defined -
Porto Levante- not defined -
Vulcano IslandIsland
Lipari- not defined -
Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)Group of Islands
Messina ProvinceProvince
SicilyAutonomous Region
ItalyCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
38° North , 14° East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~1km
Name(s) in local language(s):
Faraglioni di Levante (Grotte dei Faraglioni; Grotte del Faraglione), Porto Levante, Isola di Vulcano, Lipari, Isole Eolie, Provincia di Messina, Sicilia, Italia


Faraglioni di Levante (plural in Italian) is a toponym indicating the two hills, located near the harbour of Porto di Levante, that were once part of one hill called Faraglione di Levante (singular in Italian), eroded and disaggregated by combined effects of mechanical weathering, fumarolic fluids, and man's activity. [The Italian word 'faraglione', or 'faragghiune' in Sicilian dialect, means 'cliff'].

Faraglione di Levante is considered to be the remnants of an ancient volcanic conduit of indeterminable age (attributed to the 1st century BC by some authors). It was intensively mined for the aluminium-bearing sulfates used in the manufacture of alum. Its interior contained various cavities formerly known as Grotte del Faraglione and then as Grotte dei Faraglioni. Sometimes, they are referred to as Grotte dell'Allume (plural in Italian), although the use of this name should be discouraged in order to avoid confusion with Grotta dell'Allume proper (singular in Italian) at Faraglione Nico. Furthermore, Anthony et al. (2003) mentioned them as "Grotte de Faraglione" (a typo?).

Nowadays, the two hills appear as two monoliths separated by a little road: the small one, locally known as "Faragghiune Nicu" (whose Italianised version is Faraglione Nico or Faraglione Piccolo), is located on the north and the large one, locally known as "Faragghiune Ranni" (whose Italianised version is Faraglione Ranni or Faraglione Grande) on the south. From a mineralogical point of view, of particular interest is the cavity named Grotta dell'Allume at the foot of Faraglione Nico, today almost completely collapsed, and the large cavity inside Faraglione Ranni, sometimes referred to as Grotta del Faraglione [as "Grotta de Faraglione" (a typo?) in Anthony et al., 2003], which is still accessible.

For correct naming of the localities, and adding minerals to the correct locality, please see Campostrini et al. (2011) and also http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-181492.html. However, in the literature, there is frequent confusion between Grotta dell'Allume proper at Faraglione Nico and Grotta del Faraglione at Faraglione Ranni with consequent problems for the correct locality attribution of minerals.

At Faraglione di Levante, Dolomieu (1783) described a cavern, having east to west direction and, near its end, a pond of hot water (55°C) in which gas bubbles could be seen rising to the surface. A silky, white to yellowish aluminium sulfate, forming aggregates of divergent filiform crystals, lined the cave walls in association with subordinate sulphur and a green vitriol. According to Spallanzani's observations (1792), this cave, accessible through a narrow tunnel, had the ceiling and walls encrusted by alunogen, salammonic, and sulphur; bubbles of CO2 and other gaseous substances were released from the hot pond, used for curative purposes by local people. Ferrara (1810) called this cave Grotta del Bagno. De Fiore (1922) believed that the cave described by the old authors could be identified with Grotta dell'Allume, in which the hot pond was hidden by the falling rocks. According to Sicardi (1940), the fumaroles inside the Faraglioni were evidenced by excavations of large cavities, in order to increase the deposition surface of the efflorescences of the exploited aluminium sulfates. Alum-K was described by Cossa (1881) intermingled with alunogen, gypsum, and salammoniac. Panichi (1914) classified as "kalinite" a mineral appearing as an asbestous felt or a white compact furlike coating, consisting of an assembly of fibres of variable length with a slightly sericeous lustre, in association with alunogen, gypsum, salammoniac, and other sulfates. According to Campostrini et al. (2011), "kalinite" of Panichi is probably a mixture of alum-K, pickeringite, and gypsum.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

35 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Aluminocopiapite ?
Formula: Al2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: I. Campostrini, 2008, pers. com. [M.E. Ciriotti]
Aluminocoquimbite (TL)
Formula: Al2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Demartin, F., Castellano, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., Campostrini, I. (2010): Aluminum-for-iron substitution, hydrogen bonding, and a novel structure-type in coquimbite-like minerals. Canadian Mineralogist, 48, 323-333.
Alum-(K)
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Alum-(Na)
Formula: NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C. M., Russo, M. (2011): Vulcano - Tre secoli di mineralogia. Associazione Micro-mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 344 pp.
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Localities:
Amarillite
Formula: NaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Mikhail Murashko find and collection
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Aubertite
Formula: CuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Reference: P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
Bassanite
Formula: Ca(SO4) · 0.5H2O
Reference: P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
Blödite
Formula: Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Reference: GARAVELLI A., GRASSO M.F., VURRO F. (1996): Mineral occurrence and depositional processes at Baia di Levante area (Vulcano Island, Italy). - Mineralogica et Petrographica Acta - 39, 251- 261.
Boussingaultite
Formula: (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: GARAVELLI A., GRASSO M.F., VURRO F. (1996): Mineral occurrence and depositional processes at Baia di Levante area (Vulcano Island, Italy). - Mineralogica et Petrographica Acta - 39, 251- 261.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Coquimbite
Formula: AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hydrobasaluminite
Formula: Al4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
Reference: P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
Kalinite
Formula: KAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
'Keramohalite'
Reference: P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
Krausite
Formula: KFe(SO4)2 · H2O
Reference: Campostrini I. et al - Vulcano: ein aussergewohnlicher Fundpunkt von neuen und seltenen Mineralien - MineralienWelt 2010 - nr.3 - p.40-57
Magnesioaubertite (TL)
Formula: (Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Reference: GEBHARD G., MEDENBACH O., GEBERT W. (1988): Magnesioaubertit, (Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl.14H2O ein neues Chlorsulfat von Vulcano, Liparische Inseln. - Der Aufschluss - 39, 2, 97-102. GARAVELLI A., GRASSO M.F., VURRO F. (1996): Mineral occurrence and depositional processes at Baia di Levante area (Vulcano Island, Italy). - Mineralogica et Petrographica Acta - 39, 251- 261.
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Melanterite var: Cuprian Melanterite
Formula: (Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Reference: P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
Mendozite
Formula: NaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
Metavoltine
Formula: Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Millosevichite (TL)
Formula: (Al,Fe)2(SO4)3
Reference: Panichi, U. (1913): Millosevichite, nuovo minerale del Faraglione di Levante nell'Isola di Vulcano. Rendiconti dell'Accademia dei Lincei, Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Serie 5, 12, 303
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Pertlikite
Formula: K2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Reference: Campostrini I. et al - Vulcano: ein aussergewohnlicher Fundpunkt von neuen und seltenen Mineralien - MineralienWelt 2010 - nr.3 - p.40-57
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Localities:
Salammoniac
Formula: NH4Cl
Sassolite
Formula: H3BO3
Reference: HOLLAND, 1813.
Sideronatrite
Formula: Na2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
Reference: GARAVELLI A., GRASSO M.F., VURRO F. (1996): Mineral occurrence and depositional processes at Baia di Levante area (Vulcano Island, Italy). - Mineralogica et Petrographica Acta - 39, 251- 261.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Tamarugite
Formula: NaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
'Thénardite'
Formula: Na2SO4
Reference: P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
Voltaite
Formula: K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Yavapaiite
Formula: KFe(SO4)2
Reference: Campostrini I. et al - Vulcano: ein aussergewohnlicher Fundpunkt von neuen und seltenen Mineralien - MineralienWelt 2010 - nr.3 - p.40-57
Zaherite
Formula: Al12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
Reference: P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 3 - Halides
Salammoniac3.AA.25NH4Cl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Group 6 - Borates
Sassolite6.AA.05H3BO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alum-(K)7.CC.20KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Alum-(Na)7.CC.20NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Aluminocopiapite ?7.DB.35Al2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Aluminocoquimbite (TL)7.CB.50Al2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Amarillite7.CC.75NaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Aubertite7.DB.05CuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Bassanite7.CD.45Ca(SO4) · 0.5H2O
Blödite7.CC.50Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Boussingaultite7.CC.60(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Coquimbite7.CB.55AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hydrobasaluminite7.DE.60Al4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
Kalinite7.CC.15KAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Krausite7.CC.05KFe(SO4)2 · H2O
Magnesioaubertite (TL)7.DB.05(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
var: Cuprian Melanterite7.CB.35(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Mendozite7.CC.15NaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Metavoltine7.DF.35Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Millosevichite (TL)7.AB.05(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3
Pertlikite7.CC.25K2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Sideronatrite7.DF.20Na2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
Tamarugite7.CC.10NaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
'Thénardite'7.AC.25Na2SO4
Voltaite7.CC.25K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Yavapaiite7.AC.15KFe(SO4)2
Zaherite7.DE.65Al12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Keramohalite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Salammoniac9.1.3.1NH4Cl
Group 24 - ANHYDROUS BORATES
AmBn[XO3]p
Sassolite24.3.1.1H3BO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
'Thénardite'28.2.3.1Na2SO4
AXO4
Yavapaiite28.3.4.1KFe(SO4)2
Miscellaneous
Millosevichite (TL)28.4.5.1(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Blödite29.3.3.1Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Boussingaultite29.3.7.2(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
Metavoltine29.4.6.1Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Alum-(K)29.5.5.1KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Alum-(Na)29.5.5.2NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Amarillite29.5.3.2NaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Kalinite29.5.4.2KAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Krausite29.5.1.1KFe(SO4)2 · H2O
Mendozite29.5.4.1NaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Tamarugite29.5.3.1NaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Bassanite29.6.1.1Ca(SO4) · 0.5H2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Aluminocoquimbite (TL)29.8.8.Al2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Coquimbite29.8.3.1AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Miscellaneous
Pertlikite29.9.1.3K2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Voltaite29.9.1.1K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Hydrobasaluminite31.4.6.1Al4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Sideronatrite31.8.3.1Na2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
(AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Aubertite31.9.8.1CuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Magnesioaubertite (TL)31.9.8.3(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Miscellaneous
Aluminocopiapite ?31.10.5.7Al2/3Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Zaherite31.10.3.1Al12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Aragonite-CaCO3
'Keramohalite'-
Melanterite
var: Cuprian Melanterite
-(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
H AluminocoquimbiteAl2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
H TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
H Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
H MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H SassoliteH3BO3
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H SalammoniacNH4Cl
H CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
H BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
H KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
H PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
H AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
H BassaniteCa(SO4) · 0.5H2O
H HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
H KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
H Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
H MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
H ZaheriteAl12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
H AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
H Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
H AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
BBoron
B SassoliteH3BO3
CCarbon
C AragoniteCaCO3
NNitrogen
N SalammoniacNH4Cl
N Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
OOxygen
O Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
O Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3
O AluminocoquimbiteAl2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
O TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
O Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
O MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O SassoliteH3BO3
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
O AragoniteCaCO3
O BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
O KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
O PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
O YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2
O AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
O BassaniteCa(SO4) · 0.5H2O
O HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
O KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
O Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
O MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
O ThénarditeNa2SO4
O ZaheriteAl12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
O AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
O Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
O AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
NaSodium
Na TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Na MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Na BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Na SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
Na MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Na ThénarditeNa2SO4
Na AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Na Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Mg Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Mg PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Mg AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
AlAluminium
Al Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Al Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3
Al AluminocoquimbiteAl2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Al TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Al Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Al AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Al HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
Al KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Al MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Al ZaheriteAl12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
Al Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Al AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
SiSilicon
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
SSulfur
S Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
S Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3
S AluminocoquimbiteAl2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
S TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2O
S Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
S MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
S BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
S SulphurS8
S KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
S PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
S YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2
S AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
S BassaniteCa(SO4) · 0.5H2O
S HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2O
S KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
S Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
S MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
S ThénarditeNa2SO4
S ZaheriteAl12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2O
S AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
S Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
S AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
ClChlorine
Cl Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Cl SalammoniacNH4Cl
Cl AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
KPotassium
K VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
K Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
K MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
K KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
K PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
K YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2
K KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca BassaniteCa(SO4) · 0.5H2O
FeIron
Fe Millosevichite(Al,Fe)2(SO4)3
Fe AluminocoquimbiteAl2Fe2(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Fe VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Fe MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Fe CoquimbiteAlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12·6H2O
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe SideronatriteNa2Fe(SO4)2(OH) · 3H2O
Fe KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2O
Fe PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe23+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Fe YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2
Fe Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Fe AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Fe AluminocopiapiteAl2/3Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
Cu AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
Cu Melanterite (var: Cuprian Melanterite)(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Dolomieu, D. (1783) Voyage aux Îles de Lipari, fait en 1781, ou notices sur les Îles Æoliennes, pour servir a l'histoire des volcans. Imprimerie de Chardon, Paris, 208 pages.
Spallanzani, L. (1792) Viaggi alle Due Sicilie e in alcune parti dell'Appennino. Vol. 2. Stamperia Baldassarre Comini, Pavia, 351 pages.
Ferrara, F. (1810) I Campi Flegrei della Sicilia e delle isole che le sono intorno o descrizione fisica e mineralogica di queste isole. Stamperia dell'Armata Britannica, Messina, 424 pages.
Cossa, A. (1881) Allume potassico dell'isola di Vulcano. In: Ricerche chimiche e microscopiche su roccie e minerali d'Italia (1875-1880). Regia Stazione Agraria Sperimentale di Torino, Tip. V. Bona, Torino, 208-221.
Jervis, G. (1881) I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 3: Regioni delle Isole. Sardegna e Sicilia. Addenda ai precedenti volumi. Loescher, Torino, XXII+539 pages.
Panichi, U. (1914) Contributo allo studio dei minerali dell’isola di Vulcano. Memorie di Matematica e Scienze Fisiche e Naturali della Società Italiana delle Scienze (detta dei XL), ser. 3, 19, 3-55.
De Fiore, O. (1922) Vulcano. Ed. Cozzolino, Napoli, 393 pages; Rivista Vulcanologica, Supp. 3.
Sicardi, L. (1940) Il recente ciclo dell'attività fumarolica dell'isola di Vulcano. Bulletin Volcanologique, ser. 2, 7, 85-139.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy. Volume 5: borates, carbonates, sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, Arizona, 813 pages.
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M., Russo, M. (2011) Vulcano - Tre secoli di mineralogia. Associazione Micro-mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 344 pages.

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