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Lepanto Mine, Mancayan mineral district (Mankayan), Benguet Province, Cordillera Administrative Region, Luzon, Philippinesi
Regional Level Types
Lepanto MineMine
Mancayan mineral district (Mankayan)District
Benguet ProvinceProvince
Cordillera Administrative RegionRegion
LuzonIsland Group
PhilippinesCountry

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Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
16° North , 120° East (est.)
Estimate based on other nearby localities or region boundaries.
Margin of Error:
~4km
Locality type:


A copper and gold mine.
Already in the 12th century copper ingots from Mankayan was exchanged with Chinese traders for their goods. When the Spanish came in the 16th century it became their main metal source.
The modern era of mining started in 1936 when the Lepanto Consolidated Mining Company was formed, starting with a 400 ton/day mill production, soon increased to 1000 tpd. Operated for a few years by Mitsui Mining Company/Japan during the WWII. The company was able to start mining again 2 years after the liberation, and increased production to 4500 tpd later. When the production ceased in the enargite mine/orebody in 1996 it had produced 743 kt of Cu, 92 t of Au and 390 t of Ag.
Today the company is working another orebody located appr 3km away: the Victoria project.
High grade gold quartz veins with silver values.
Source; Lepanto Cons. material received at mine visit in Dec. 2001.





Regions containing this locality

AsiaContinent
Philippine Sea PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


19 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Hassan-Nezhad, A. A., & Moore, F. (2006). A stable isotope and fluid inclusion study of the Qaleh-ZariCu–Au–Ag deposit, Khorasan Province, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27(6), 805-818.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.; Hassan-Nezhad, A. A., & Moore, F. (2006). A stable isotope and fluid inclusion study of the Qaleh-ZariCu–Au–Ag deposit, Khorasan Province, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27(6), 805-818.
Colusite
Formula: Cu13VAs3S16
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 22:23.; Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.; Hassan-Nezhad, A. A., & Moore, F. (2006). A stable isotope and fluid inclusion study of the Qaleh-ZariCu–Au–Ag deposit, Khorasan Province, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27(6), 805-818.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.; Hassan-Nezhad, A. A., & Moore, F. (2006). A stable isotope and fluid inclusion study of the Qaleh-ZariCu–Au–Ag deposit, Khorasan Province, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27(6), 805-818.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.; Hassan-Nezhad, A. A., & Moore, F. (2006). A stable isotope and fluid inclusion study of the Qaleh-ZariCu–Au–Ag deposit, Khorasan Province, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27(6), 805-818.
Luzonite (TL)
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Type Locality:
Reference: [Tschermaks Min.Mitth.(1874) p. 257; Berg- und Hüttenmänn. Ztg.(1869) 28, p. 105 and 113; Nickel & Nichols, 1991, "Mineral Reference Manual", 123]; Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.; Hassan-Nezhad, A. A., & Moore, F. (2006). A stable isotope and fluid inclusion study of the Qaleh-ZariCu–Au–Ag deposit, Khorasan Province, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27(6), 805-818.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MAC Short Course 23 (1995) Chapter 19 pp419-454
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MAC Short Course 23 (1995) Chapter 19 pp419-454
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.; Hassan-Nezhad, A. A., & Moore, F. (2006). A stable isotope and fluid inclusion study of the Qaleh-ZariCu–Au–Ag deposit, Khorasan Province, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27(6), 805-818.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.
Stannoidite
Formula: Cu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'
Reference: Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Claveria, R. J. R. (2001). Mineral paragenesis of the Lepanto copper and gold and the Victoria gold deposits, Mankayan mineral district, Philippines. Resource Geology, 51(2), 97-106.; Hassan-Nezhad, A. A., & Moore, F. (2006). A stable isotope and fluid inclusion study of the Qaleh-ZariCu–Au–Ag deposit, Khorasan Province, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 27(6), 805-818.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Colusite2.CB.30Cu13VAs3S16
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Luzonite (TL)2.KA.10Cu3AsS4
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Proustite2.GA.05Ag3AsS3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannoidite2.CB.15cCu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Stannoidite2.9.3.3Cu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Colusite3.1.1.1Cu13VAs3S16
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
Luzonite (TL)3.2.2.1Cu3AsS4
ø = 3
Proustite3.4.1.1Ag3AsS3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Tennantite-Tetrahedrite Series'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
OOxygen
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O BaryteBaSO4
O QuartzSiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S LuzoniteCu3AsS4
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S ColusiteCu13VAs3S16
S StannoiditeCu6+Cu22+(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S CovelliteCuS
S SphaleriteZnS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S MarcasiteFeS2
S ProustiteAg3AsS3
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S BaryteBaSO4
S GalenaPbS
S DigeniteCu9S5
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
VVanadium
V ColusiteCu13VAs3S16
FeIron
Fe StannoiditeCu6+Cu22+(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
CuCopper
Cu LuzoniteCu3AsS4
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu ColusiteCu13VAs3S16
Cu StannoiditeCu6+Cu22+(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
ZnZinc
Zn StannoiditeCu6+Cu22+(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As LuzoniteCu3AsS4
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As ColusiteCu13VAs3S16
As ProustiteAg3AsS3
AgSilver
Ag SilverAg
Ag ProustiteAg3AsS3
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
SnTin
Sn StannoiditeCu6+Cu22+(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Geochronology

Mineralization age: Pleistocene : 1.56 ± 0.29 Ma to 1.17 ± 0.16 Ma

Important note: This table is based only on rock and mineral ages recorded below and is not necessarily a complete representation of the geochronology, but does give an indication of possible mineralization events relevant to this locality. As more age information is added this table may expand in the future. A break in the table simply indicates a lack of data entered here, not necessarily a break in the geologic sequence. Grey background entries are from different, related, localities.

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Cenozoic
  Quaternary
   Pleistocene
ⓘ Alunite (youngest age)1.17 ± 0.16 Ma
ⓘ Alunite (oldest age)1.56 ± 0.29 Ma

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Gonzales, A. (1956) Geology of the Lepanto copper mine, Mankayan, Mountain Province. In: Copper Deposits of the Philippines (A.J. Kinkel Jr. et al,, eds.). Philippines Bureau of Mines, special publication 16, 17-50.
Rocks & Minerals: 22:23. A copper-gold mine located 108 km North of Baguio. Owned by the Mitsui Mining Co. (WWII). Produced 7,500 tons of Cu (1944).
Rocks & Minerals: 23:320
Bureau of Mines Mineral Trade Notes (Nov, 1947)
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990.
CLAVERIA R J R (2001) Mineral Paragenesis of the Lepanto Copper and Gold and the Victoria Gold Deposits, Mankayan Mineral District, Philippines, - Resour Geol, 51(2), pp.97-106.
Jeffrey W. Hedenquist, Antonio Arribas, and T. James Reynolds (1998) Evolution of an intrusion-centered hydrothermal system; Far Southeast-Lepanto porphyry and epithermal Cu-Au deposits, Philippines. Economic Geology; July 1998; v. 93; no. 4; p. 373-404
Deyell, C.L. and Hedenquist, J.W. (2011): Trace element geochemistry of enargite in the Mankayan district, Philippines. Economic Geology 106, 1465-1478.


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