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Ngatamariki thermal area (Pavlova Spring), Wairakei, Taupo District, Waikato Region, North Island, New Zealandi
Regional Level Types
Ngatamariki thermal area (Pavlova Spring)Area
Wairakei- not defined -
Taupo DistrictDistrict
Waikato RegionRegion
North Island- not defined -
New ZealandCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 38° 31' 54'' South , 176° 10' 24'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -38.53170,176.17355
GeoHash:G#: rcjkbct8t
Locality type:Area
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


The Ngatamariki geothermal field is located 13 km northeast of Wairakei in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand.

An active geothermal area, in a state of flux, which has seen many changes over the decades. In 2013, the largest single site binary power station in the world was built two kilometres south-east of the main surface geothermal features. What effect the power station has had on the geothermal features is unknown, however such infrastructure in the region has generally had a negative impact on the amount of surface geothermal activity. The area is covered in farmland, and pine plantations, and is not generally accessible.

In 1948, a hydrothermal eruption created the largest pool on the Orakonui Stream. Further eruptions occurred 1993, 1998, and 2005 at the time of writing creating pools, bubbling hot springs, and geysers. Pavlova Spring is one pool producing silica and calcite material looking like egg meringue. The Orakonui Stream forms the western boundary of the geothermal field.

Country rock depends on the area the source determines to study. The geothermal field covers 7 square kilometres. (Chambefort et. al., 2017) describes the alteration elements of the field as a composite plutonic body, consisting of intrusions of diorite and tonalite, with associated hydrothermal altered zones of potassic, advanced argillic, phyllic, and propylitic mineral assemblages. This is cross-cut by hypogene advanced argillic alteration consisting of pyrophyllite-minor andalusite-topaz-anhydrite, and rare aluminophosphates and fluorine bearing minerals. This is in part overprinted in northern parts by phyllic alteration of quartz-muscovite-pyrite, and at deeper levels hydrothermal alteration to kaolinite, rare dickite, and locally highly silicified rock resembling vuggy quartz. In central and southern parts is pyrophyllic alteration of chlorite-calcite-epidote-wairakite-actinolite-albite-illite.

(Bosely, et. al.,2011) described country rock from drill holes in the area as surface unconsolidated pumice, rhyolite lava, crystal rich tuff, overlying porphyritic glassy perlitic pumiceous rhyolite. This is underlain by massive porphyritic rhyolite lava, then the Huka Falls Formation of tuff and sediments, and then basal pumice crystal tuff, and partially welded pumice crystal rich ignimbrite of the Waiora Formation. The sequence may vary depending on the site of a drill hole.

(Campbell, et. al., 2002) Pavlova Spring is one of the four main geothermal pools along Orakonui Stream. The pool has produced an unusual crustose chalk white meringue like sinter of non crystaline opal-A silica, and subordinate calcite, centred on nuclei of fallen plant matter, pumice, sediment, and microbial mats. The sinter structure consists of microstromatolites, overlain with silicified structures probably of fungal origin it says.




Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


23 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Brotheridge, J.M.A., Browne, P.R.L., Hochstein, M.P. (1995) The Ngatamariki geothermal field New Zealand: surface manifestations - past and present in Proceedings of the 17th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1995. Presented by the Geothermal Institute, The university of Auckland in conjunction with The Centre for Continuing Education. p61.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
'Biotite'
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Brotheridge, J.M.A., Browne, P.R.L., Hochstein, M.P. (1995) The Ngatamariki geothermal field New Zealand: surface manifestations - past and present in Proceedings of the 17th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1995. Presented by the Geothermal Institute, The university of Auckland in conjunction with The Centre for Continuing Education. p61.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Brotheridge, J.M.A., Browne, P.R.L., Hochstein, M.P. (1995) The Ngatamariki geothermal field New Zealand: surface manifestations - past and present in Proceedings of the 17th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1995. Presented by the Geothermal Institute, The university of Auckland in conjunction with The Centre for Continuing Education. p61.
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Browne, P.R.L., Courtney, S.F., Wood, C.P. (1989) Formation rates of calc-silicate minerals deposited inside drillhole casing, Ngatamariki geothermal field, New Zealand. American Mineralogist, 74(7-8), 759-763.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Brotheridge, J.M.A., Browne, P.R.L., Hochstein, M.P. (1995) The Ngatamariki geothermal field New Zealand: surface manifestations - past and present in Proceedings of the 17th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1995. Presented by the Geothermal Institute, The university of Auckland in conjunction with The Centre for Continuing Education. p61.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Brotheridge, J.M.A., Browne, P.R.L., Hochstein, M.P. (1995) The Ngatamariki geothermal field New Zealand: surface manifestations - past and present in Proceedings of the 17th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1995. Presented by the Geothermal Institute, The university of Auckland in conjunction with The Centre for Continuing Education. p61.
Leucoxene
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Mordenite
Formula: (Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: The Ngatamariki Geothermal Field, NZ: Surface Manifestations - Past and Present. Brotheridge, J.M.A. Browne, P.R.L. Hochstein, M.P. Proceedings 17th NZ Geothermal Workshop 1995 p61
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Brotheridge, J.M.A., Browne, P.R.L., Hochstein, M.P. (1995) The Ngatamariki geothermal field New Zealand: surface manifestations - past and present in Proceedings of the 17th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1995. Presented by the Geothermal Institute, The university of Auckland in conjunction with The Centre for Continuing Education. p61.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Browne, P.R.L., Courtney, S.F., Wood, C.P. (1989) Formation rates of calc-silicate minerals deposited inside drillhole casing, Ngatamariki geothermal field, New Zealand. American Mineralogist, 74(7-8), 759-763.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Browne, P.R.L., Courtney, S.F., Wood, C.P. (1989) Formation rates of calc-silicate minerals deposited inside drillhole casing, Ngatamariki geothermal field, New Zealand. American Mineralogist, 74(7-8), 759-763.
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Browne, P.R.L., Courtney, S.F., Wood, C.P. (1989) Formation rates of calc-silicate minerals deposited inside drillhole casing, Ngatamariki geothermal field, New Zealand. American Mineralogist, 74(7-8), 759-763.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Brotheridge, J.M.A., Browne, P.R.L., Hochstein, M.P. (1995) The Ngatamariki geothermal field New Zealand: surface manifestations - past and present in Proceedings of the 17th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 1995. Presented by the Geothermal Institute, The university of Auckland in conjunction with The Centre for Continuing Education. p61.
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Wairakite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Reference: Browne, P.R.L., Courtney, S.F., Wood, C.P. (1989) Formation rates of calc-silicate minerals deposited inside drillhole casing, Ngatamariki geothermal field, New Zealand. American Mineralogist, 74(7-8), 759-763.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cristobalite4.DA.15SiO2
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Andalusite9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
Dickite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mordenite9.GD.35(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Pyrophyllite9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Wairakite9.GB.05Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Leucoxene-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Dickite71.1.1.1Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Mordenite77.1.6.1(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Wairakite77.1.1.3Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Leucoxene-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O QuartzSiO2
O WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O CalciteCaCO3
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O CristobaliteSiO2
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
FFluorine
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S SulphurS8
S AnhydriteCaSO4
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
CaCalcium
Ca WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Brotheridge, J.M.A., Browne, P.R.L., Hochstein, M.P. (1995) The Ngatamariki Geothermal Field New Zealand: surface manifestations- past and present, Proceedings 17th New Zealand Geothermal Workshop. Presented by the Geothermal Institute, The University of Auckland in conjunction with The Centre for Continuing Education, p61.
Browne, P.R.L., Courtney, S.F., Wood, C.P. (1989) Formation of calc-silicate minerals deposited inside drillhole casing, Ngatamariki geothermal field, New Zealand. American Mineralogist, Volume 74(7-8), 759-763.
Campbell, K.A., Rodgers, K.A., Brotheridge, J.M.A., Browne, P.R.L. (2002) An unusual modern silica-carbonate sinter from Pavlova Spring Ngatamariki New Zealand, Sedimentology. The Journal of the International Association of Sedimentologists, 49:4, 835-854.
Boseley, C., Bignall, G., Rae, A., Chambefort, I., Lewis, B. (2011) Stratigraphy and hydrothermal alteration encountered by monitor wells completed at Ngatamariki and Orakei Korako in 2011. GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre.
Chambefort, I., Lewis, B., Simpson, M.P., Bignall, G., Rae, A.J., Ganefanto, N. (2017) Ngatamariki Geothermal System: Magmatic to Epithermal Transition in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Economic Geology, 112:2, 319-346.
Cant, J.L., Siratovich, P.A., Cole, J.W., Villeneuve, M.C., Kennedy, B.M. (2018) Matrix permeability of reservoir rocks Ngatamariki geothermal field Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geothermal Energy, 6:2.

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