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Quiruvilca Mine (La Libertad Mine; ASARCO Mine), Quiruvilca District, Santiago de Chuco Province, La Libertad, Perui
Regional Level Types
Quiruvilca Mine (La Libertad Mine; ASARCO Mine)Mine
Quiruvilca DistrictDistrict
Santiago de Chuco ProvinceProvince
La LibertadRegion
PeruCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
8° 0' 39'' South , 78° 19' 18'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Quiruvilca9,226 (2012)14.3km
Santiago de Chuco6,759 (2013)21.8km
Otuzco10,134 (2012)31.3km
Huamachuco21,768 (2012)36.6km


A Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au mine owned by ASARCO (80%). 1984 production was 358,000 tons/ore (2,400 tons Cu; 3,500 tons Pb; 10,000 tons Zn; 55,200 kg Ag & 78 kg Au).

Known for excellent specimens of orpiment, enargite, hutchinsonite, and pyrite.

Mesothermal and epithermal Cu-Pb-Zn ore mineralisations in an area of andesitic and basaltic volcanics. Four distinct zones can be recognized. From the center, they are the enargite zone, a transition zone, the Pb-​Zn and the stibnite zone. Alteration includes chloritization, propylitization, argillization, and silicification.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


35 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Argentobaumhauerite
Formula: Ag1.5Pb22As33.5S72
Habit: nearly amorphous crust
Colour: indistinct purple crust
Fluorescence: none
Description: The crust was very difficult to x-ray and Baumhaurite 2a was the best guess.
Reference: Robinson, G. W., Harris, D. C. (1987): A baumhauerite-like mineral from Quiruvilca, Peru. Mineralogical Record 18, 199-201.; Crowley, J.A., Currier, R.H. & Szenics, T. (1997): Mines and Minerals of Peru. Mineralogical Record 28, 1-98.
Arsenic
Formula: As
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997); Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Axinite-(Mn)
Formula: Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Bournonite
Formula: PbCuSbS3
Habit: Cogwheel twins to 3cm
Colour: grey black increasing in blackness with increasing Arsenic
Fluorescence: none
Reference: Burkart-Baumann, I.; Ottemann, J. (1972): Low temperature sulfides from Quiruvilca, Peru. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1972, 541-551 (in German).; Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997); Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Burkart-Baumann, I.; Ottemann, J. (1972): Low temperature sulfides from Quiruvilca, Peru. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1972, 541-551 (in German).; Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Chatkalite
Formula: Cu6FeSn2S8
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Habit: Prismatic, tabular, 6 pointed trillings
Description: The trillings form a six pointed star. There is also an epitaxy of twinned tetrahedrites or tennantites on the large prisms. Sometimes this epitaxy entirely encloses the enargites and these are wrongly labeled pseudomorphs.
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997); Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Famatinite
Formula: Cu3SbS4
Reference: Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Geocronite
Formula: Pb14(Sb,As)6S23
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Gratonite
Formula: Pb9As4S15
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Hutchinsonite
Formula: TlPbAs5S9
Habit: Thick needles to a cm
Colour: black with red internal reflections
Fluorescence: none
Description: With Barite, Orpiment and Baumhaurite 2a
Reference: White, J.S. & Nelen, J.A. (1985): Hutchinsonite from Quiruvilca, Peru. Mineralogical Record 16, 459-460; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254
Jamesonite
Formula: Pb4FeSb6S14
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Habit: druse of cubes to several mm
Colour: purplish black
Fluorescence: none
Description: Druse on enargites, very similar to Taiwan material
Reference: Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Orpiment
Formula: As2S3
Habit: Wedge like xls to 3cm
Colour: yellow-orange to brown-orange
Fluorescence: none
Reference: Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Habit: Octos, pyritohedra
Description: 2 cm lustrous octos perched on white quartz. Pyritohedrons grew in clay, similar to those from the Magma Mine in Arizona, USA
Reference: Burkart-Baumann, I.; Ottemann, J. (1972): Low temperature sulfides from Quiruvilca, Peru. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1972, 541-551 (in German).; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Realgar
Formula: As4S4
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
'Revoredite'
Formula: PbAs4S7
Habit: Botryoidal crusts
Colour: black
Fluorescence: none
Description: Black botryoidal drusts to a cm in thickness and botryiods to 5mm
Reference: Milton, C., & Ingram, B. (1959). Note on “Revoredite” and related lead-sulfur-arsenic glasses. American Mineralogist 44:1070-1076
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Robinsonite
Formula: Pb4Sb6S13
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Seligmannite
Formula: PbCuAsS3
Reference: Burkart-Baumann, I.; Ottemann, J. (1972): Low temperature sulfides from Quiruvilca, Peru. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1972, 541-551 (in German).; Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Burkart-Baumann, I.; Ottemann, J. (1972): Low temperature sulfides from Quiruvilca, Peru. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1972, 541-551 (in German).; Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Stannite
Formula: Cu2FeSnS4
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)
'Tennantite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
Habit: Twins and in epitaxi on enargite
Description: Encrust in epitaxi on enargite and replace enargite
Reference: Burkart-Baumann, I.; Ottemann, J. (1972): Low temperature sulfides from Quiruvilca, Peru. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1972, 541-551 (in German).
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Reference: Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Reference: Min.Rec. 28, #4 (1997)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Arsenic1.CA.05As
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Alabandite2.CD.10MnS
Argentobaumhauerite2.HC.05bAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bournonite2.GA.50PbCuSbS3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Chatkalite2.CB.20Cu6FeSn2S8
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Famatinite2.KA.10Cu3SbS4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Geocronite2.JB.30aPb14(Sb,As)6S23
Gratonite2.JB.55Pb9As4S15
Hutchinsonite2.HD.45TlPbAs5S9
Jamesonite2.HB.15Pb4FeSb6S14
Luzonite2.KA.10Cu3AsS4
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Orpiment2.FA.30As2S3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Realgar2.FA.15aAs4S4
Robinsonite2.HC.20Pb4Sb6S13
Seligmannite2.GA.50PbCuAsS3
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stannite2.CB.15aCu2FeSnS4
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
'Tennantite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Wurtzite2.CB.45(Zn,Fe)S
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Axinite-(Mn)9.BD.20Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Revoredite'-PbAs4S7

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Arsenic1.3.1.1As
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Alabandite2.8.1.4MnS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Realgar2.8.21.1As4S4
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Wurtzite2.8.7.1(Zn,Fe)S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Chatkalite2.9.3.2Cu6FeSn2S8
Stannite2.9.2.1Cu2FeSnS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Orpiment2.11.1.1As2S3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
Famatinite3.2.2.2Cu3SbS4
Luzonite3.2.2.1Cu3AsS4
3 <ø < 4
Geocronite3.3.1.2Pb14(Sb,As)6S23
Gratonite3.3.2.1Pb9As4S15
'Tennantite'3.3.6.2Cu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
ø = 3
Bournonite3.4.3.2PbCuSbS3
Seligmannite3.4.3.1PbCuAsS3
2 < ø < 2.49
Jamesonite3.6.7.1Pb4FeSb6S14
Robinsonite3.6.16.1Pb4Sb6S13
1 < ø < 2
Hutchinsonite3.8.6.1TlPbAs5S9
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Axinite-(Mn)56.2.2.3Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Argentobaumhauerite-Ag1.5Pb22As33.5S72
'Revoredite'-PbAs4S7

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
BBoron
B Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O BaryteBaSO4
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O CalciteCaCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
MgMagnesium
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S HutchinsoniteTlPbAs5S9
S OrpimentAs2S3
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S PyriteFeS2
S RevoreditePbAs4S7
S LuzoniteCu3AsS4
S SphaleriteZnS
S StibniteSb2S3
S BaryteBaSO4
S ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72
S BournonitePbCuSbS3
S TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
S GalenaPbS
S AlabanditeMnS
S Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
S ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8
S GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23
S GratonitePb9As4S15
S JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
S MarcasiteFeS2
S RealgarAs4S4
S RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13
S SeligmannitePbCuAsS3
S StanniteCu2FeSnS4
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
S FamatiniteCu3SbS4
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CaCalcium
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
MnManganese
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn AlabanditeMnS
Mn Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8
Fe JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu LuzoniteCu3AsS4
Cu BournonitePbCuSbS3
Cu TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
Cu ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8
Cu SeligmannitePbCuAsS3
Cu StanniteCu2FeSnS4
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Cu FamatiniteCu3SbS4
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)S
AsArsenic
As HutchinsoniteTlPbAs5S9
As OrpimentAs2S3
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As RevoreditePbAs4S7
As LuzoniteCu3AsS4
As ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72
As TennantiteCu6(Cu4X2)As4S12S
As ArsenicAs
As GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23
As GratonitePb9As4S15
As RealgarAs4S4
As SeligmannitePbCuAsS3
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
AgSilver
Ag ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72
SnTin
Sn ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8
Sn StanniteCu2FeSnS4
SbAntimony
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Sb GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23
Sb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Sb RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Sb FamatiniteCu3SbS4
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
TlThallium
Tl HutchinsoniteTlPbAs5S9
PbLead
Pb HutchinsoniteTlPbAs5S9
Pb RevoreditePbAs4S7
Pb ArgentobaumhaueriteAg1.5Pb22As33.5S72
Pb BournonitePbCuSbS3
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb GeocronitePb14(Sb,As)6S23
Pb GratonitePb9As4S15
Pb JamesonitePb4FeSb6S14
Pb RobinsonitePb4Sb6S13
Pb SeligmannitePbCuAsS3
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Lewis, R.W., Jr. (1956) The geology and ore deposits of the Quiruvilca District, Peru. Economic Geology 51, 41-63.
Burkart-Baumann, I. and Ottemann, J. (1972) Low temperature sulfides from Quiruvilca, Peru. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 1972, 541-551 (in German).
Mining Annual Review (1985) 323.
Bartos, P.J. (1987) Quiruvilca, Peru: Mineral zoning and timing of wall-​rock alteration relative to copper-​lead-​zinc-​silver vein-​fill deposition. Economic Geology 82, 1431-1452.
Robinson, G. W. and Harris, D. C. (1987) A baumhauerite-like mineral from Quiruvilca, Peru. Mineralogical Record 18, 199-201.
Crowley, J.A., Currier, R.H., and Szenics, T. (1997) Mines and Minerals of Peru. Mineralogical Record 28, 1-98.
Hyrsl and Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record: 34: 241-254.

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

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