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Tongariro Alpine Crossing Northern Circuit, Tongariro National Park, Ruapehu District, Manawatu-Wanganui Region, New Zealandi
Regional Level Types
Tongariro Alpine Crossing Northern Circuit- not defined -
Tongariro National ParkNational Park
Ruapehu DistrictDistrict
Manawatu-Wanganui RegionRegion
New ZealandCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
39° 7' 50'' South , 175° 39' 29'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Turangi3,401 (2012)20.3km
Waiouru1,347 (2015)38.6km
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Ketetahi Springs


An all day walk accessing the upper areas of the Tongariro and Ngauruhoe volcanoes. The walk is steep, requiring some fitness. Snow prevents access in winter. Take water and clothing suitable for changing weather conditions. Check weather conditions and potential volcanic activity before going. Up to 70 000 people walk the trail each summer. The walk accesses other worldly vistas of volcanoes, old lava flows, thermal water filled lakes, steaming fumaroles and craters. Like all sections listed under the national park, this is not a specimen site, but does contain interesting geology.

Ngauruhoe at 2291m is the highest point of the Tongariro complex and is on Tongariro’s southern flank.
•• Areas of mineral springs and fumaroles(steam vents) include Ketetahi Springs, Red and Te Maari craters. These are part of NZ’s highest geothermal system which underlies parts of the volcano.
•• Altitude, steep slopes, ‘fresh’ volcanic material and erosion prevent vegetation growing on most parts of the Tongariro complex.
•• Some craters have filled with water to create Blue Lake and the Emerald Lakes.

•• It is an active stratovolcano (also called composite cone volcano).
•• It is made of alternating layers of pyroclastic material (ash and rocks) and mainly andesite lava flows.

Note that this area is all part of a National Park and permits are required to collect in the area. Ketetahi thermal area is private land within the Park and entry is forbidden without written permission of the owners.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


17 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Ammoniojarosite
Formula: (NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Topping, W.W., Kohn, B.P. (1973) Rhyolitic tephra marker beds in the Tongariro area, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 16:3, 375-395.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Topping, W.W., Kohn, B.P. (1973) Rhyolitic tephra marker beds in the Tongariro area, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 16:3, 375-395.
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Cummingtonite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Topping, W.W., Kohn, B.P. (1973) Rhyolitic tephra marker beds in the Tongariro area, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 16:3, 375-395.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Topping, W.W., Kohn, B.P. (1973) Rhyolitic tephra marker beds in the Tongariro area, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 16:3, 375-395.
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Topping, W.W., Kohn, B.P. (1973) Rhyolitic tephra marker beds in the Tongariro area, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 16:3, 375-395.
Koktaite
Formula: (NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Topping, W.W., Kohn, B.P. (1973) Rhyolitic tephra marker beds in the Tongariro area, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 16:3, 375-395.
Magnetite var: Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Topping, W.W., Kohn, B.P. (1973) Rhyolitic tephra marker beds in the Tongariro area, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 16:3, 375-395.
Mascagnite
Formula: (NH4)2SO4
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Mendozite
Formula: NaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Mohrite
Formula: (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Tschermigite
Formula: (NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Johnstone, R. D. 1979, Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cristobalite4.DA.15SiO2
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var: Titaniferous Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Ammoniojarosite7.BC.10(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Koktaite7.CD.35(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Mascagnite7.AD.05(NH4)2SO4
Mendozite7.CC.15NaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Mohrite7.CC.60(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Tschermigite7.CC.20(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Cummingtonite9.DE.05☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
Mascagnite28.2.1.1(NH4)2SO4
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Koktaite29.3.1.2(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Mohrite29.3.7.1(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Mendozite29.5.4.1NaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Tschermigite29.5.5.3(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Ammoniojarosite30.2.5.4(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Cummingtonite66.1.1.1☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Hornblende'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Magnetite
var: Titaniferous Magnetite
-Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
H Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
H Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
H Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
H Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
H Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NNitrogen
N Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
N Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
N Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
N Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
N Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
OOxygen
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
O Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
O Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
O Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O CristobaliteSiO2
O MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
O Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
AlAluminium
Al Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
SiSilicon
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Cummingtonite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
SSulfur
S SulphurS8
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
S Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
S Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
S Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S PyriteFeS2
S MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2O
S Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
CaCalcium
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2O
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
TiTitanium
Ti Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
FeIron
Fe Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe33+(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Johnstone, R.D. (1979) Fumarole Incrustations and Some Aspects of the Thermal Alteration at Ketetahi, Mount Tongariro, New Zealand. Geothermal Institute, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Topping, W.W., Kohn, B.P. (1973) Rhyolitic tephra marker beds in the Tongariro area, North Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 16:3, 375-395.

External Links


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