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Town Farm Road, Litchfield, Litchfield Co., Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
Town Farm RoadRoad
Litchfield- not defined -
Litchfield Co.County
ConnecticutState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 46' 49'' North , 73° 10' 14'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:


Outcrops of Rowe schist, interbedded with amphibolite and cut by masses of pure quartz, to the east of Town Farm Road, about 0.4 miles north of U. S. Route 202, include ilmenite, staurolite, almandine and kyanite porphyroblasts. The general area east of this road to Wilson Road and south to U. S. Route 202, including the farms that on 1859 and 1874 maps are named Smith, Yale, Woodruff and Beach, was prospected by Albert Sedgwick and John Buell for copper. In 1852 they took out mining leases on these and other adjacent properties. The coordinates are for the general center of this area because the various specific locations have not been differentiated. Several people have written about this area in the last couple of centuries.

Gold (1838) described the ilmenite crystals (then called crichtonite - and one of the first places described in Conn. or perhaps the USA), within the Woodruff Farm here as occurring:

in short hexagonal prisms, with the alternate angles replaced by single planes, inclining upon the base at an angle of 121°, and upon the lateral planes at an angle of 134°. The largest of the crystals are about three-quarters of an inch in length, and two and one quarter inches in diameter. It is found imbedded in fragments of quartz and mica-slate.


Gaines (1887) described ilmenite localities on the Yale and Smith farms on the NW side of U. S. Route 202:

a mass of white quartz rock can be seen standing out conspicuously in the open field. Fine crystals of washingtonite [ilmenite] were found in this mass itself as also in the blocks on the slope below that had fallen from it...near the top of the same ridge...the mica schist crops out in a small grove of hickory trees. Here a number of plates of washingtonite, without well defined angles, were found in the rock, associated with well preserved crystals of staurolite of a dark brown color.


This area includes "coarse staurolite schist" mapped by Gates and Christensen (1965). Staurolite, along with almandine, can reach 7.5 to 10 cm as anhedral to subhedral crystals.

Brunet (1977) describes collecting at the Yale Farm locality, which he calls a quartz mine (evidently one of Sedgwick and Buells workings):

In the cliff area of the first Gaines location, large detached masses of ilmenite were found in the dump in front of the workings and after considerable rock shifting and excavating, a number of fine crystals common to the area were found—one giant coarsely-shaped crystal being all of 2 1/2 inches by three inches and 1/2 inch in thickness, in an 8" by 5" by 4” matrix. Other smaller, sharper angled crystal specimens and plates and masses were also found. Interestingly enough, in the feldspar found sparingly in the dumps, balls of chalcopyrite and associated malachite films were located, while in the rocks down slope, staurolite crystals of four to six inches were found in good though somewhat weathered condition. Also found were rocks of almost solid staurolite masses which after breaking were found to contain beautiful clean, perfectly shaped staurolite crystals. Most of the adjoining dumps were left unexplored but will be examined for further evidence of ilmenite, as well as other minerals.


Brunet (1988) reports finding apatite, epidote and hematite, including rosette crystals to 2 cm, and 7.5 cm albite crystals in a vug.

Payne K. Kilbourne's history of Litchfield (1859):

Two miles northeast of the village on the farm of Mr. Beach [on Town Farm Road], a shaft has been sunk twenty five feet in depth by Messrs. Sedgwick and Buell. The vein or lode is fourteen feet in width, composed of pure quartz with a slight mixture of feldspar. In this vein is found a very pure gray copper ore yielding by analysis 79.5 percent of copper. A bevel has been driven 140 feet which, when completed will intersect the vein at 50 feet in depth. In this vein are also found great quantities of small pure garnets.... This vein bearing in a nearly north-south direction, can be traced for a distance of three miles.


Hubbard (1905) describes this area also, where he says some quartz mining was actually done:

There is a large and probably valuable deposit of quartz rock on the farm owned by Dr. J. T. Sedgwick, west of the Torrington road [U. S. Route 202]. Some silica has been mined and sold from this deposit. There are other deposits of silica in town from which quantities of the rock have been mined and sold....Some thirty years ago a great deal of this mineral was ground at the mill in Campville, but the hard stone wore out the mill and the fine particles which were inhaled by the enterprising man who started this new industry caused his death and the mining of silica was to a large extent abandoned here until within a few years past, when the search for it was resumed in several localities.


Land is posted (private property, no trespassing).

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


12 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Description: Crystals in vugs to 7.5 cm.
Reference: Brunet, William M. (1977). Ilmenite Occurrences In Litchfield, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 52(11): 415-20.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Colour: maroon
Description: Porphyroblasts to a few cm.
Reference: Hiller, John. (1982), Unpublished sketch map.; Gates, Robert M. and Nikolas L. Christensen. (1965). The Bedrock Geology of the West Torrington Quadrangle. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Quadrangle Report No. 17.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Habit: massive
Description: blebs in the albite associated with malachite films
Reference: Brunet, William M. (1977). Ilmenite Occurrences In Litchfield, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 52(11): 415-20.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Brunet, William M. (1988). New Mineral Discoveries in Litchfield County, Connecticut. Abstract for presentation at the 14th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium in: Rocks & Minerals: 63(2): 126-7.
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Brunet, William M. (1988). New Mineral Discoveries in Litchfield County, Connecticut. Abstract for presentation at the 14th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium in: Rocks & Minerals: 63(2): 126-7.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Habit: granular to rosettes
Description: Rosettes to 2 cm in fractures in amphibolite.
Reference: Brunet, William M. (1988). New Mineral Discoveries in Litchfield County, Connecticut. Abstract for presentation at the 14th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium in: Rocks & Minerals: 63(2): 126-7.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Habit: hexagonal tabular
Colour: black
Description: In massive white quartz: a number of fine crystals common to the area were found—one giant coarsely-shaped crystal being all of 2 1/2 inches by three inches and 1/2 inch in thickness, in an 8" by 5" by 4” matrix. Other smaller, sharper angled crystal specimens and plates and masses were also found. (Brunet, 1977); up to 0.75" in length and 2.25" in diameter (Gaines, 1887)
Reference: Gold, T. S. (1838). New locality of crichtonite. American Journal of Science: 35: 179. ; Brunet, William M. (1977). Ilmenite Occurrences In Litchfield, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 52(11): 415-20.
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Hiller, John. (1982), Unpublished sketch map.
Magnesio-hornblende
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Habit: bladed, flabellate
Colour: black
Description: radiating fans of crystals to 5 cm in fine-grained albite/quartz matrix
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Habit: encrustations
Colour: green
Description: Films on rocks surrounding blebs of chalcopyrite.
Reference: Brunet, William M. (1977). Ilmenite Occurrences In Litchfield, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 52(11): 415-20.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: massive
Colour: white
Description: In large discordant masses in the schist, commonly hosting ilmenite crystals along the contacts.
Reference: Brunet, William M. (1977). Ilmenite Occurrences In Litchfield, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 52(11): 415-20.
Staurolite
Formula: Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Habit: prismatic
Colour: dark brown
Description: 7.5 to 10 cm as anhedral to subhedral crystals
Reference: Gold, T. S. (1838), New locality of crichtonite. American Journal of Science: 35: 179.; Hiller, John. (1982), Unpublished sketch map.; Gates, Robert M. and Nikolas L. Christensen. (1965). The Bedrock Geology of the West Torrington Quadrangle. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Quadrangle Report No. 17. ; Brunet, William M. (1977). Ilmenite Occurrences In Litchfield, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 52(11): 415-20.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Magnesio-hornblende9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Staurolite9.AF.30Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Staurolite52.2.3.1Fe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Magnesio-hornblende-☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
H Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
OOxygen
O StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O QuartzSiO2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CaCalcium
Ca Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
FeIron
Fe StauroliteFe22+Al9Si4O23(OH)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Gold, T. S. (1838). New locality of crichtonite. American Journal of Science: 1st series, 35: 179.
Shepard, Charles U. (1842). On Washingtonite (a new Mineral) etc. American Journal of Science: 1st series, 43: 364-66.
Hopkins, G. M., Jr. (1859). Clark's Map of Litchfield County, Connecticut. Richard Clark, Philadelphia.
Kilbourne, P. K. (1859). Sketches and chronicles of the town of Litchfield. Case, Lockwood, Hartford.
F. W. Beers & Company. (1874). Map of Litchfield, Connecticut.
Orcutt, Rev. Samuel. (1878). History of Torrington, Connecticut. J. Munsell, Albany.
Gaines, M. R. (1887). Notes on some mineral locations in Litchfield, Connecticut. American Journal of Science: 34: 406-07.
Hubbard, John T. (1905). Litchfield mining ventures lecture to the Litchfield Scientific Association, Dec. 13, 1905.
White, Alain Campbell. (1920). The History of the Town of Litchfield, Connecticut, 1720-1920.
King, Vandall T. (1962), World News on Mineral Occurrences. Rocks & Minerals: 62(5): 317-320.
Gates, Robert M. and Nikolas L. Christensen. (1965). The Bedrock Geology of the West Torrington Quadrangle. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Quadrangle Report No. 17.
Brunet, William M. (1977). Ilmenite Occurrences In Litchfield, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 52(11): 415-20.
Hiller, John. (1982), Unpublished sketch map.
Brunet, William M. (1988). New Mineral Discoveries in Litchfield County, Connecticut. Abstract for presentation at the 14th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium in: Rocks & Minerals: 63(2): 126-7.

Other Regions, Features and Areas containg this locality

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