Gower Gulch Mine, Zabriskie Point, Black Mountains, Amargosa Range, Inyo Co., California, USAi
|Regional Level Types|
|Gower Gulch Mine||Mine|
|Black Mountains||Mountain Range|
|Amargosa Range||Mountain Range|
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
36° 25' 29'' North , 116° 50' 15'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:
A former borate mine located in the NE¼SW¼ sec. 35 (at SW¼ - NW¼ margin), NE¼SE¼ sec. 35, and in the center SW¼ sec. 36, T27N, R1E, SBM, 2.3 km (1.5 miles) WNW of Zabriskie Point (coordinates of record), along Gower Gulch, on private (?) land in National Park Service wilderness land area (Death Valley National Park/Death Valley Wilderness). Owned by the U.S. Borax And Chemical Corp. MRDS database stated accuracy for this location is 1,000 meters.
NOTE: The coordinates provided are for the largest group of workings (4 adits) in sec. 35.
The Gower Gulch mining area is reached either by trail south from Golden Canyon or by following the old 1-1/2-mile-long wagon/auto road from Zabriskie Point that was built in the 1880s by the Pacific Coast Borax Company to facilitate annual assessment work on the ten claims they held in the gulch. The road led to a two-tent camp established as headquarters for men working in the area.
Approximately one-half mile southwest of Zabriskie Point and down in the gulch is a building site on the south side of the dry streambed. Timber remnants are found here in association with a sturdy rock wall, four to five feet high and relatively clear on top, structures similar to which were found at all borax sites in the Furnace Creek Wash area. Also nearby, along the side of another gully are two smaller isolated stone mounds, one two feet high, two feet wide, and seven feet long, the other three feet wide, two feet high, and ten feet long. Short exploratory tunnels have been dug into the ridges here.
Continuing west down the road, which follows the gulch streambed, numerous adits can be seen to the north and south up various gullies and washes. Another large foundation, built of crumbly clay "bricks' and about seven feet wide, showed up at another site south of the watercourse near an adit. About 1-1/2 miles down the gulch is a large group of adits (Six plus) and more stone walls. A long switchback trail extends up over the ridge to the northwest, shored up at points along the hillside. From here on to the mouth of the canyon the gulch narrows considerably, eventually ending in a high dry waterfall, so that this area would be the last place from which entrance or exit could be easily made to these claims. This is the point at which Harry Cower implies a temporary campsite was established for assessment work in the area.
Mineralization is a Miocene borate deposit (Mineral occurrence model information: Model code 260; USGS model code 35b.3; Deposit model name: lacustrine borates), hosted in rocks of the Furnace Creek Formation (evaporite, conglomerate). Some of the borates are in the gypsiferous member of the formation and dip N40-45; others are in the basal conglomerates that dip N55-60. Associated rocks include Miocene basalts. Local rocks include Tertiary nonmarine rocks, undivided.
Workings include unspecified underground openings.
NOTE: The references place this mine(s) in both secs. 35 & 36. Research of the topo maps revealed a tight group of 4 adit symbols along Gower Gulch (westernmost workings) at the coordinates listed in this file. Another single adit symbol lies further upstream of the gulch at 36.41668N, 116.83123W (in the NE¼SE¼ sec. 35). Yet another single adit symbol is further upstream (eastward) along Gower Gulch in the center SW¼ sec. 36, at 36.41899N, 116.81995W.
Select Mineral List TypeStandard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements
Detailed Mineral List:
| ✪ Colemanite|
Formula: Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Reference: Korbel & Novak, 1999. Min.Encylopaedia, p.133
| ⓘ Gowerite|
Formula: Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O
| ⓘ Gypsum|
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Description: Occurs in the gypsiferous member of the Furnace Creek Formation.
Reference: USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10023435.
| ⓘ Howlite|
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 362.
Formula: Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Description: Occurs as solid balls of radiating crystals.
Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2Oⓘ Meyerhofferite
List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification
|Group 6 - Borates|
|ⓘ||Colemanite||6.CB.10||Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O|
|ⓘ||Gowerite||6.EC.10||Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O|
|ⓘ||Meyerhofferite||6.CA.30||Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O|
|Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates|
|ⓘ||Gypsum||7.CD.40||CaSO4 · 2H2O|
List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification
|Group 25 - ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN|
|Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN|
|ⓘ||Colemanite||126.96.36.199||Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O|
|ⓘ||Meyerhofferite||188.8.131.52||Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O|
|ⓘ||Gowerite||184.108.40.206||Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O|
|Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES|
|Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES|
|ⓘ||Gypsum||220.127.116.11||CaSO4 · 2H2O|
List of minerals for each chemical element
|H||ⓘ Colemanite||Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O|
|H||ⓘ Gowerite||Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O|
|H||ⓘ Meyerhofferite||Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O|
|H||ⓘ Gypsum||CaSO4 · 2H2O|
|B||ⓘ Colemanite||Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O|
|B||ⓘ Gowerite||Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O|
|B||ⓘ Meyerhofferite||Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O|
|O||ⓘ Colemanite||Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O|
|O||ⓘ Gowerite||Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O|
|O||ⓘ Meyerhofferite||Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O|
|O||ⓘ Gypsum||CaSO4 · 2H2O|
|S||ⓘ Gypsum||CaSO4 · 2H2O|
|Ca||ⓘ Colemanite||Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O|
|Ca||ⓘ Gowerite||Ca[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2O|
|Ca||ⓘ Meyerhofferite||Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O|
|Ca||ⓘ Gypsum||CaSO4 · 2H2O|
Sort byYear (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A) In-text Citation No.
Funk, B.G. (1942) Borates and associated minerals from Mount Blanco, Death Valley, California. Mineralogist: 10: 287.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, 7th. edition, Volume II: 362.
McAllister, James Franklin (1970) Geology of the Furnace Creek borate area, Death Valley, Inyo County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 14, 9 pp.
Evans, James R., G.C. Taylor, and J.S. Rapp (1976) Mines and mineral deposits in Death Valley National Monument. California Division Mines and Geology Special Report 125: 1-61: 28.
Greene, Linda I. (1981), U.S. National Park Service, Historic Preservation Branch, Pacific Northwest/Western Team, Denver Service Center, Death Valley – Historic Resource Study – A History of Mining, Volume I (Parts 1 and 2): part 2: III. E.2.b)(5).
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 244.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10023435 & 10236277.
U.S. Bureau of Mines, Minerals Availability System (MAS) file ID #0060271266.
|Link to USGS MRDS:||10023435|
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