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Marmara Region, Turkeyi
Regional Level Types
Marmara RegionRegion
TurkeyCountry

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Key
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Istanbul14,804,116 (2017)
Bursa1,412,701 (2015)
Bağcılar724,270 (2014)
Üsküdar582,666 (2013)
Bahçelievler576,799 (2010)
Umraniye573,265 (2011)
Other Languages:
French:
Région de Marmara, Turquie
German:
Marmararegion, Türkei
Italian:
Regione di Marmara, Turchia
Russian:
Мраморноморский регион, Турция
Simplified Chinese:
馬摩拉地區, 土耳其
Spanish:
Región del Mármara, Turquía
Arabic:
منطقة مرمرة, تركيا
Armenian:
Մարմարածովյան տարածաշրջան, Թուրքիա
Asturian:
Rexón del Mármara, Turquía
Azeri:
Mərmərə regionu, Türkiyə
Belarusian:
Мармуроваморскі рэгіён, Турцыя
Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa):
Мармуроваморскі рэгіён, Турэччына
Bosnian:
Marmara, Turska
Bulgarian:
Мармара, Турция
Catalan:
Regió de la Màrmara, Turquia
Central Kurdish/Sorani:
ناوچەی مەڕمەڕە, تورکیا
Chechen:
Мармаран хӀордан регион, Туркойчоь
Croatian:
Mramorna regija, Turska
Czech:
Marmarský region, Turecko
Dutch:
Marmararegio, Turkije
Esperanto:
Marmora regiono, Turkio
Farsi/Persian:
ناحیه مرمره, بوقلمون
Galician:
Rexión do Mármara, Turquía
Georgian:
მარმარილოს ზღვის რეგიონი, თურქეთი
Greek:
Περιοχή Μαρμαρά, Τουρκία
Hebrew:
מרמרה , טורקיה
Hindi:
मरमरा क्षेत्र, तुर्की
Hungarian:
Márvány-tengeri régió, Törökország
Indonesian:
Kawasan Marmara, Turki
Japanese:
マルマラ地方, トルコ
Korean:
마르마라 지역, 터키
Latvian:
Marmora jūras reģions, Turcija
Macedonian:
Мраморен регион, Турција
Marathi:
मार्मारा प्रदेश, तुर्कस्तान
Northern Frisian:
Marmararegiuun, Türkei
Norwegian:
Marmararegionen, Tyrkia
Norwegian (Nynorsk):
Marmararegionen, Tyrkia
Pashto:
مرمره سیمه, تورکيه
Portuguese:
Região de Mármara, Turquia
Romanian:
Regiunea Marmara, Turcia
Scots:
Marmara Region, Turkey
Serbian:
Мраморна регија, Турска
Serbo-Croatian:
Marmara, Turska
Slovak:
Marmarský región, Turecko
Slovenian:
Marmara, Turčija
Somali:
Gobolka Marmara, Turki
South Azerbaijani:
مرمره بؤلگه‌سی, تورکیه
Swahili:
Kanda ya Marmara, Uturuki
Tagalog:
Marmara Region, Pabo
Turkish:
Marmara Bölgesi, Türkiye
Ukrainian:
Мармуровоморський регіон, Туреччина
Urdu:
مرمرہ علاقہ, ترکی
Uyghur:
مارمارا رايونى, تۈركىيە جۇمھۇرىيىتى
Zazaki:
Mıntıqay Marmara, Tırkiya


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Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

146 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Blanks, D. E., Holwell, D. A. and Coller, I. V. (2014), Multi Stage Epithermal Au-Ag Mineralisation in the Kiziltepe Deposit, Western Turkey: Evidence From 3D High Resolution CT Scanning. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 706–707.
Actinolite
Formula: ◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Reference: Okay, A.I. (1997): Mineralogical Magazine 61, 835-843.
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: Yahya Çiftçi, M. Kemal Revan, Pınar Şen & Okan Zimitoğlu (2013). International Workshop on Base and Precious Metals May 20 - 27, 2013 Field Trip Guide Book May 24-27, 2013.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Orhan, A. & Mutlu, H. (2017): Geochemical Characteristics and Rare-Earth Element Distributions Of Kozbudaklar W-Skarn Deposit (Bursa, Western Anatolia). Bulletin Of The Mineral Research and Exploration 155, 115-130.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 47-56.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Yahya Çiftçi, M. Kemal Revan, Pınar Şen & Okan Zimitoğlu (2013). International Workshop on Base and Precious Metals May 20 - 27, 2013 Field Trip Guide Book May 24-27, 2013.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Yahya Çiftçi, M. Kemal Revan, Pınar Şen & Okan Zimitoğlu (2013). International Workshop on Base and Precious Metals May 20 - 27, 2013 Field Trip Guide Book May 24-27, 2013.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
'Andradite-Grossular Series'
Reference: Lucas Etienne
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 47-56.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Koc, S., Kavrazli, O., and Kocak, I. (2008): Proceedings of the 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo (Norway), Aug 6-14, 2008.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Oygür, V. (1997). Anatomy of an epithermal mineralization: Mumcu (Balikesir-Sindirgi), Inner Western Anatolia, Turkey. Mineral Research Exploration Bulletin, 119, 29-39.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Şentürk, K., and Okay, A. (1981-82): Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Foreign Edition, 97-98, 72-75.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Erik Vercammen collection and field observations (1987)
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Barroisite
Formula: ◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Reference: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 47-56.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Bayleyite
Formula: Mg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
Reference: Top, G., Tutay, Y. Ö., & Kampfl, G. (2018). Determination of Uranium-Bearing Samples in Terms of Possible Contamination, Arikli Uranium Region, Çanakkale, Turkey (No. IAEA-CN--261).
Billingsleyite
Formula: Ag7AsS6
Reference: Blanks, D. E., Holwell, D. A. and Coller, I. V. (2014), Multi Stage Epithermal Au-Ag Mineralisation in the Kiziltepe Deposit, Western Turkey: Evidence From 3D High Resolution CT Scanning. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 706–707.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Reference: Şentürk, K., and Okay, A. (1981-82): Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Foreign Edition, 97-98, 72-75.
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Gültekin, A. H., & Örgün, Y. (2005). Arapuçan (Yenice-Çanakkale) Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Yatağının Jeolojik, Mineralojik ve Jeokimyasal Özellikleri.
Borax
Formula: Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
'Bursaite'
Formula: Pb5Bi4S11 (?)
Reference: Tolun, R. (1954-55): Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Foreign Edition, 46/47, 106-127.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Reference: Öztürk, H., and Frakes, L.A. (1995): Ore Geology Reviews 10, 117-131.
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Cervantite
Formula: Sb3+Sb5+O4
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
'Clays'
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 342.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
'Clinoptilolite'
Formula: $m3-6(Si30Al6)O72 · 20H2O
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Aldanmaz, E., Gourgaud, A., & Kaymakcı, N. (2005). Constraints on the composition and thermal structure of the upper mantle beneath NW Turkey: evidence from mantle xenoliths and alkali primary melts. Journal of Geodynamics, 39(3), 277-316. Aldanmaz, E. R. C. A. N., Köprübaşı, N., Gürer, Ö. F., Kaymakçı, N., & Gourgaud, A. (2006). Geochemical constraints on the Cenozoic, OIB-type alkaline volcanic rocks of NW Turkey: implications for mantle sources and melting processes. Lithos, 86(1-2), 50-76. Yılmaz, Y., & Polat, A. (1998). Geology and evolution of the Thrace volcanism, Turkey. Acta Vulcanologica, 10(2), 293-303.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 47-56.
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Reference: Yılmazer, E., Güleç, N., Kuşcu, İ., & Lentz, D. R. (2014). Geology, geochemistry, and geochronology of Fe-oxide Cu (±Au) mineralization associated with Şamlı pluton, western Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 57, 191-215.
Colemanite
Formula: Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Corrensite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Reference: Koc, S., Kavrazli, O., and Kocak, I. (2008): Proceedings of the 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo (Norway), Aug 6-14, 2008.
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Oygür, V. (1997). Anatomy of an epithermal mineralization: Mumcu (Balikesir-Sindirgi), Inner Western Anatolia, Turkey. Mineral Research Exploration Bulletin, 119, 29-39.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Öztürk, H., and Frakes, L.A. (1995): Ore Geology Reviews 10, 117-131.
Cubanite
Formula: CuFe2S3
Reference: Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
Datolite var. Bakerite
Formula: Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
'Diopside-Hedenbergite Series'
Reference: Öztürk, Y.Y., Helvacı, C., and Satır, M. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 271-284.
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
Emplectite
Formula: CuBiS2
Reference: Yahya Çiftçi, M. Kemal Revan, Pınar Şen & Okan Zimitoğlu (2013). International Workshop on Base and Precious Metals May 20 - 27, 2013 Field Trip Guide Book May 24-27, 2013.
Empressite
Formula: AgTe
Reference: Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
'Epidote Group'
Formula: {A12+A22+M13+M23+M33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Lucas Etienne
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
'Feldspar Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Tolun, R. (1954-55): Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Foreign Edition, 46/47, 106-127.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Orhan, A. & Mutlu, H. (2017): Geochemical Characteristics and Rare-Earth Element Distributions Of Kozbudaklar W-Skarn Deposit (Bursa, Western Anatolia). Bulletin Of The Mineral Research and Exploration 155, 115-130.; Romberg, H. (1938): Bursa Vilayetinde Sebihtepe’de, Karaıslak, Kuzbudak ve Keles’de Tetkik Olunan Yataklar Hakkında Rapor. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Rapor No: 722, Ankara (unpublished).
Gersdorffite
Formula: NiAsS
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Glaucophane
Formula: ◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 47-56.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Yahya Çiftçi, M. Kemal Revan, Pınar Şen & Okan Zimitoğlu (2013). International Workshop on Base and Precious Metals May 20 - 27, 2013 Field Trip Guide Book May 24-27, 2013.
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Gold var. Electrum
Formula: (Au,Ag)
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Cristosud's collection
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Yahya ÖZPINAR, Mehmet KILIÇ, Mehmet AVŞAR, Ramazan SARI, Şahzet KÜÇÜKEFE, Hrayr AGNERIAN, Zafer DOYGUN, Kemal YENİGÜN (2012): A new assessment of the Kısacık gold mineralization (Ayvacik-Çanakkale; NW Anatolia). Romanian Journal of Earth Sciences, 86, 111-116.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Hematite var. Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Hessite
Formula: Ag2Te
Reference: Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
'Heulandite'
Reference: Koc, S., Kavrazli, O., and Kocak, I. (2008): Proceedings of the 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo (Norway), Aug 6-14, 2008.; Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 47-56.
Howlite
Formula: Ca2B5SiO9(OH)5
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; Helvaci, C., & Alaca, O. (1991). Geology and mineralogy of the Bigadiç borate deposits and vicinity. Mineral Res. Expl. Bull, 113, 31-63.
Hydroboracite
Formula: CaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Hydroxylapatite var. Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Idaite
Formula: Cu5FeS6
Reference: Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Inyoite
Formula: Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: Meixner, H. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 445-455.; Helvaci, C., & Alaca, O. (1991). Geology and mineralogy of the Bigadiç borate deposits and vicinity. Mineral Res. Expl. Bull, 113, 31-63.
Iron
Formula: Fe
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Iron var. Kamacite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Jadeite
Formula: Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Reference: Okay, A.I. (1997): Mineralogical Magazine 61, 835-843.
Jalpaite
Formula: Ag3CuS2
Reference: Blanks, D. E., Holwell, D. A. and Coller, I. V. (2014), Multi Stage Epithermal Au-Ag Mineralisation in the Kiziltepe Deposit, Western Turkey: Evidence From 3D High Resolution CT Scanning. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 706–707.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Okay, A.I. (1997): Mineralogical Magazine 61, 835-843.
'K Feldspar var. Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Reference: Öztürk, H., and Frakes, L.A. (1995): Ore Geology Reviews 10, 117-131.
Lawsonite
Formula: CaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Reference: Okay, A.I. (1997): Mineralogical Magazine 61, 835-843.
Lenaite
Formula: AgFeS2
Reference: Blanks, D. E., Holwell, D. A. and Coller, I. V. (2014), Multi Stage Epithermal Au-Ag Mineralisation in the Kiziltepe Deposit, Western Turkey: Evidence From 3D High Resolution CT Scanning. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 706–707.
Lepidocrocite
Formula: γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Öztürk, H., and Frakes, L.A. (1995): Ore Geology Reviews 10, 117-131.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Lizardite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Magnesite
Formula: MgCO3
Reference: Erik Vercammen collection
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Magnetite var. Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Gültekin, A. H., & Örgün, Y. (2005). Arapuçan (Yenice-Çanakkale) Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Yatağının Jeolojik, Mineralojik ve Jeokimyasal Özellikleri.
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: Öztürk, H., and Frakes, L.A. (1995): Ore Geology Reviews 10, 117-131.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Mckinstryite
Formula: Ag5-xCu3+xS4
Reference: Blanks, D. E., Holwell, D. A. and Coller, I. V. (2014), Multi Stage Epithermal Au-Ag Mineralisation in the Kiziltepe Deposit, Western Turkey: Evidence From 3D High Resolution CT Scanning. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 706–707.
Mercury
Formula: Hg
Meyerhofferite
Formula: Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Helvaci, C., & Alaca, O. (1991). Geology and mineralogy of the Bigadiç borate deposits and vicinity. Mineral Res. Expl. Bull, 113, 31-63.
'Mica Group'
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
'Monazite'
Reference: Okay, A.I. (1997): Mineralogical Magazine 61, 835-843.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Muscovite var. Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Muscovite var. Phengite
Formula: KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Reference: Okay, A.I. (1997): Mineralogical Magazine 61, 835-843.
Muscovite var. Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Okay, A.I. (1997): Mineralogical Magazine 61, 835-843.
Nacrite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
Naumannite
Formula: Ag2Se
Reference: Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
Nickeline
Formula: NiAs
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Ningyoite
Formula: CaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
Reference: Top, G., Tutay, Y. Ö., & Kampfl, G. (2018). Determination of Uranium-Bearing Samples in Terms of Possible Contamination, Arikli Uranium Region, Çanakkale, Turkey (No. IAEA-CN--261).
Omphacite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Reference: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 47-56.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
Opal var. Opal-CT
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
Opal var. Opaline
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
'Opalite'
Reference: Oygür, V. (1997). Anatomy of an epithermal mineralization: Mumcu (Balikesir-Sindirgi), Inner Western Anatolia, Turkey. Mineral Research Exploration Bulletin, 119, 29-39.
Orpiment
Formula: As2S3
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Aldanmaz, E., Gourgaud, A., & Kaymakcı, N. (2005). Constraints on the composition and thermal structure of the upper mantle beneath NW Turkey: evidence from mantle xenoliths and alkali primary melts. Journal of Geodynamics, 39(3), 277-316. Aldanmaz, E. R. C. A. N., Köprübaşı, N., Gürer, Ö. F., Kaymakçı, N., & Gourgaud, A. (2006). Geochemical constraints on the Cenozoic, OIB-type alkaline volcanic rocks of NW Turkey: implications for mantle sources and melting processes. Lithos, 86(1-2), 50-76. Yılmaz, Y., & Polat, A. (1998). Geology and evolution of the Thrace volcanism, Turkey. Acta Vulcanologica, 10(2), 293-303.
Paragonite
Formula: NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 47-56.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
Piemontite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Okay, A.I. (1997): Mineralogical Magazine 61, 835-843.
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Reference: Blanks, D. E., Holwell, D. A. and Coller, I. V. (2014), Multi Stage Epithermal Au-Ag Mineralisation in the Kiziltepe Deposit, Western Turkey: Evidence From 3D High Resolution CT Scanning. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 706–707.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Oyman, T. (2010): Geochemistry, mineralogy and genesis of the Ayazmant Fe–Cu skarn deposit in Ayvalik, (Balikesir), Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 175-201.
Priceite
Formula: Ca2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Schortmann's Minerals specimen, 1950.
Probertite
Formula: NaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Reference: Öztürk, H., and Frakes, L.A. (1995): Ore Geology Reviews 10, 117-131.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 28 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Pyrite var. Arsenian Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Gültekin, A. H., & Örgün, Y. (2005). Arapuçan (Yenice-Çanakkale) Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag Yatağının Jeolojik, Mineralojik ve Jeokimyasal Özellikleri.
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Orhan, A. & Mutlu, H. (2017): Geochemical Characteristics and Rare-Earth Element Distributions Of Kozbudaklar W-Skarn Deposit (Bursa, Western Anatolia). Bulletin Of The Mineral Research and Exploration 155, 115-130.; Romberg, H. (1938): Bursa Vilayetinde Sebihtepe’de, Karaıslak, Kuzbudak ve Keles’de Tetkik Olunan Yataklar Hakkında Rapor. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Rapor No: 722, Ankara (unpublished).
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Romberg, H. (1938): Bursa Vilayetinde Sebihtepe’de, Karaıslak, Kuzbudak ve Keles’de Tetkik Olunan Yataklar Hakkında Rapor. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Rapor No: 722, Ankara (unpublished).
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 47 localities in this region.
Reference: Lucas Etienne
Quartz var. Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Hatipoğlu, M. (2003): Güğü Köyü ametist kristallerinin değerlendirilmesi (Dursunbey,Balkesir, KB Türkiye) ve yöresel ekonomiye katkisi. TÜRKİYE IV MERMER SEMPOZYUMU (MERSEM'2003) BİLDİRİLER KİTABI M-19 Aralık, 2003,. 243-255
Quartz var. Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Quartz var. Chrome-Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: http://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,11,393132,393132,quote=1
Quartz var. Jasper
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Rammelsbergite
Formula: NiAs2
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Realgar
Formula: As4S4
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Reference: Öztürk, H., and Frakes, L.A. (1995): Ore Geology Reviews 10, 117-131.
Rivadavite
Formula: Na6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2O
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
'Rock flour'
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Reference: Öztürk, H., and Frakes, L.A. (1995): Ore Geology Reviews 10, 117-131.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.
'Scapolite'
Reference: Yahya Çiftçi, M. Kemal Revan, Pınar Şen & Okan Zimitoğlu (2013). International Workshop on Base and Precious Metals May 20 - 27, 2013 Field Trip Guide Book May 24-27, 2013.
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Orhan, A. & Mutlu, H. (2017): Geochemical Characteristics and Rare-Earth Element Distributions Of Kozbudaklar W-Skarn Deposit (Bursa, Western Anatolia). Bulletin Of The Mineral Research and Exploration 155, 115-130.; Romberg, H. (1938): Bursa Vilayetinde Sebihtepe’de, Karaıslak, Kuzbudak ve Keles’de Tetkik Olunan Yataklar Hakkında Rapor. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Rapor No: 722, Ankara (unpublished).
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: Erik Vercammen collection
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Erik Vercammen field observation and collection
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Blanks, D. E., Holwell, D. A. and Coller, I. V. (2014), Multi Stage Epithermal Au-Ag Mineralisation in the Kiziltepe Deposit, Western Turkey: Evidence From 3D High Resolution CT Scanning. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 706–707.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Huseyin Yilmaz, Tolga Oyman, F. Nuran Sonmez, Greg B. Arehart and Zeki Billor (2010): Intermediate sulfidation epithermal gold-base metal deposits in Tertiary subaerial volcanic rocks, Sahinli/Tespih Dere (Lapseki/Western Turkey). Ore Geology Reviews, 37, 236-258.; Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Aldanmaz, E., Gourgaud, A., & Kaymakcı, N. (2005). Constraints on the composition and thermal structure of the upper mantle beneath NW Turkey: evidence from mantle xenoliths and alkali primary melts. Journal of Geodynamics, 39(3), 277-316. Aldanmaz, E. R. C. A. N., Köprübaşı, N., Gürer, Ö. F., Kaymakçı, N., & Gourgaud, A. (2006). Geochemical constraints on the Cenozoic, OIB-type alkaline volcanic rocks of NW Turkey: implications for mantle sources and melting processes. Lithos, 86(1-2), 50-76. Yılmaz, Y., & Polat, A. (1998). Geology and evolution of the Thrace volcanism, Turkey. Acta Vulcanologica, 10(2), 293-303.
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Reference: Blanks, D. E., Holwell, D. A. and Coller, I. V. (2014), Multi Stage Epithermal Au-Ag Mineralisation in the Kiziltepe Deposit, Western Turkey: Evidence From 3D High Resolution CT Scanning. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 706–707.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Stilpnomelane
Formula: (K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Reference: Şentürk, K., and Okay, A. (1981-82): Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Foreign Edition, 97-98, 72-75.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Taenite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
'Tennantite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4$c2+2)As4S12S
Reference: Yahya Çiftçi, M. Kemal Revan, Pınar Şen & Okan Zimitoğlu (2013). International Workshop on Base and Precious Metals May 20 - 27, 2013 Field Trip Guide Book May 24-27, 2013.
Tertschite (TL)
Formula: Ca4B10O19 · 20H2O
Reference: Fortschritte der Mineralogie (1953), 31, 39-42.
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4$c2+2)Sb4S12S
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Thorianite
Formula: ThO2
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Thorianite var. Uranothorianite
Formula: (Th,U)O2
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Şentürk, K., and Okay, A. (1981-82): Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Foreign Edition, 97-98, 72-75.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.; Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Tremolite
Formula: ◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Trevorite
Formula: Ni2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Troilite
Formula: FeS
Reference: Ramdohr, P. (1973) The Opaque Minerals in Stony Meteorites. Elsevier Publishing Company: Amsterdam; London: New York. 245 pages.
Trona
Formula: Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Tunellite
Formula: SrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Helvaci, C., & Alaca, O. (1991). Geology and mineralogy of the Bigadiç borate deposits and vicinity. Mineral Res. Expl. Bull, 113, 31-63.
Tungsten
Formula: W
Reference: Orhan, A. & Mutlu, H. (2017): Geochemical Characteristics and Rare-Earth Element Distributions Of Kozbudaklar W-Skarn Deposit (Bursa, Western Anatolia). Bulletin Of The Mineral Research and Exploration 155, 115-130.
Ulexite
Formula: NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; Helvaci, C. (1994). Mineral assemblages and formation of the Kestelek and Sultancayir borate deposits. Proc. 29th Intl. Geol. Congr. Part A, 245-284.; Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
Ullmannite
Formula: NiSbS
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
Uytenbogaardtite
Formula: Ag3AuS2
Reference: Blanks, D. E., Holwell, D. A. and Coller, I. V. (2014), Multi Stage Epithermal Au-Ag Mineralisation in the Kiziltepe Deposit, Western Turkey: Evidence From 3D High Resolution CT Scanning. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 706–707.
Vesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Reference: Romberg, H. (1938): Bursa Vilayetinde Sebihtepe’de, Karaıslak, Kuzbudak ve Keles’de Tetkik Olunan Yataklar Hakkında Rapor. Maden Tetkik ve Arama Genel Müdürlüğü Rapor No: 722, Ankara (unpublished).
Violarite
Formula: Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Reference: Kabiru, M., Kumral, M., Kocaturk, H., Gumus, L., & Kaya, M. (2017, April). Geochemical, Petrological and Mineralogical Investigation of Nickeliferous Laterite Goynukbelen, Turkey. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts (Vol. 19, p. 13102).
'Wad'
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012) A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Tolun, R. (1954-55): Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Foreign Edition, 46/47, 106-127.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Yigit, O. (2012). A prospective sector in the Tethyan Metallogenic Belt: Geology and geochronology of mineral deposits in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Ore Geology Reviews, 46, 118-148.

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Awaruite1.AE.20Ni3Fe
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Gold1.AA.05Au
var. Electrum1.AA.05(Au,Ag)
Iron1.AE.05Fe
var. Kamacite1.AE.05(Fe,Ni)
Mercury1.AD.05Hg
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Taenite1.AE.10(Fe,Ni)
Tungsten1.AE.05W
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Aikinite2.HB.05aPbCuBiS3
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Billingsleyite2.KB.05Ag7AsS6
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
'Bursaite'2.JB.40aPb5Bi4S11 (?)
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Cobaltite2.EB.25CoAsS
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Cubanite2.CB.55aCuFe2S3
Digenite2.BA.10Cu9S5
Emplectite2.HA.05CuBiS2
Empressite2.CB.80AgTe
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Gersdorffite2.EB.25NiAsS
Hessite2.BA.60Ag2Te
Idaite2.CB.15aCu5FeS6
Jalpaite2.BA.45Ag3CuS2
Lenaite2.CB.10aAgFeS2
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Mckinstryite2.BA.40Ag5-xCu3+xS4
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Naumannite2.BA.55Ag2Se
Nickeline2.CC.05NiAs
Orpiment2.FA.30As2S3
Polybasite2.GB.15[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
var. Arsenian Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe1-xS
Rammelsbergite2.EB.15aNiAs2
Realgar2.FA.15aAs4S4
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stephanite2.GB.10Ag5SbS4
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
'Tennantite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4$c2+2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4$c2+2)Sb4S12S
Troilite2.CC.10FeS
Ullmannite2.EB.25NiSbS
Uytenbogaardtite2.BA.75Ag3AuS2
Violarite2.DA.05Fe2+Ni3+2S4
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Cervantite4.DE.30Sb3+Sb5+O4
Chromite4.BB.05Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Corundum4.CB.05Al2O3
Cristobalite4.DA.15SiO2
Cryptomelane4.DK.05aK(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Diaspore4.FD.10AlO(OH)
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var. Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
Lepidocrocite4.FE.15γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var. Titaniferous Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Manganite4.FD.15Mn3+O(OH)
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var. Opal-CT4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var. Opaline4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrolusite4.DB.05Mn4+O2
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var. Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var. Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
var. Chrome-Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
var. Jasper4.DA.05SiO2
Romanèchite4.DK.10(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Spinel4.BB.05MgAl2O4
Thorianite4.DL.05ThO2
var. Uranothorianite4.DL.05(Th,U)O2
Trevorite4.BB.05Ni2+Fe3+2O4
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Aragonite5.AB.15CaCO3
Aurichalcite5.BA.15(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Bayleyite5.ED.05Mg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
var. Manganese-bearing Calcite5.AB.05(Ca,Mn)CO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Dolomite5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Kutnohorite5.AB.10CaMn2+(CO3)2
Magnesite5.AB.05MgCO3
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Trona5.CB.15Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Group 6 - Borates
Borax6.DA.10Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Colemanite6.CB.10Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Howlite6.CB.20Ca2B5SiO9(OH)5
Hydroboracite6.CB.15CaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Inyoite6.CA.35Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Meyerhofferite6.CA.30Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Priceite6.EB.25Ca2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
Probertite6.EB.15NaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Rivadavite6.FA.20Na6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2O
Tertschite (TL)6.EB.20Ca4B10O19 · 20H2O
Tunellite6.FC.05SrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Ulexite6.EA.25NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Celestine7.AD.35SrSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Natroalunite7.BC.10NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
var. Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Ningyoite8.CJ.85CaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Aegirine9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Andalusite9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
Andradite9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Barroisite9.DE.20◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Corrensite9.EC.60(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
var. Bakerite9.AJ.20Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
Dickite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Glaucophane9.DE.25◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
'Halloysite'9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Jadeite9.DA.25Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Lawsonite9.BE.05CaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Lizardite9.ED.15Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var. Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
var. Phengite9.EC.15KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
var. Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Nacrite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Omphacite9.DA.20(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Paragonite9.EC.15NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Piemontite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Pyrophyllite9.EC.10Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Stilpnomelane9.EG.40(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Thorite9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Vesuvianite9.BG.35Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Andradite-Grossular Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clays'-
'Clinoptilolite'-$m3-6(Si30Al6)O72 · 20H2O
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Diopside-Hedenbergite Series'-
'Epidote Group'-{A12+A22+M13+M23+M33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Heulandite'-
'Hornblende'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var. Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Mica Group'-
'Monazite'-
'Opalite'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Rock flour'-
'Scapolite'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Wad'-
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Awaruite1.1.11.4Ni3Fe
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Iron
var. Kamacite
1.1.11.1(Fe,Ni)
Mercury1.1.7.1Hg
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Taenite1.1.11.2(Fe,Ni)
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Digenite2.4.7.3Cu9S5
Hessite2.4.2.1Ag2Te
Jalpaite2.4.4.1Ag3CuS2
Mckinstryite2.4.5.1Ag5-xCu3+xS4
Naumannite2.4.1.2Ag2Se
Uytenbogaardtite2.4.3.1Ag3AuS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Empressite2.8.25.AgTe
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Nickeline2.8.11.1NiAs
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe1-xS
Realgar2.8.21.1As4S4
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Troilite2.8.9.1FeS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
Cubanite2.9.13.1CuFe2S3
Idaite2.9.14.1Cu5FeS6
Lenaite2.9.1.5AgFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:4
Violarite2.10.1.8Fe2+Ni3+2S4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Orpiment2.11.1.1As2S3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Cobaltite2.12.3.1CoAsS
Gersdorffite2.12.3.2NiAsS
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Rammelsbergite2.12.2.12NiAs2
Ullmannite2.12.3.3NiSbS
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø > 4
Billingsleyite3.1.6.1Ag7AsS6
Polybasite3.1.7.2[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
Stephanite3.2.4.1Ag5SbS4
3 <ø < 4
'Tennantite Subgroup'3.3.6.2Cu6(Cu4$c2+2)As4S12S
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4$c2+2)Sb4S12S
ø = 3
Aikinite3.4.5.1PbCuBiS3
'Bursaite'3.4.15.2Pb5Bi4S11 (?)
ø = 2
Emplectite3.7.5.2CuBiS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Corundum4.3.1.1Al2O3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Cervantite4.4.16.1Sb3+Sb5+O4
Pyrolusite4.4.1.4Mn4+O2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Thorianite5.1.1.2ThO2
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Diaspore6.1.1.1AlO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Lepidocrocite6.1.2.2γ-Fe3+O(OH)
Manganite6.1.3.1Mn3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Chromite7.2.3.3Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Spinel7.2.1.1MgAl2O4
Trevorite7.2.2.5Ni2+Fe3+2O4
AB8X16
Cryptomelane7.9.1.2K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Romanèchite7.9.2.1(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 13 - ACID CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Trona13.1.4.1Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
Magnesite14.1.1.2MgCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Kutnohorite14.2.1.3CaMn2+(CO3)2
Group 15 - HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
AmBn(XO3)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Bayleyite15.3.3.1Mg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Aurichalcite16a.4.2.1(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Group 25 - ANHYDROUS BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Triborates
Howlite25.3.5.1Ca2B5SiO9(OH)5
Pentaborates
Priceite25.5.1.1Ca2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
Group 26 - HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Triborates
Colemanite26.3.5.1Ca[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Hydroboracite26.3.6.1CaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Inyoite26.3.1.1Ca(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Meyerhofferite26.3.2.1Ca2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Tetraborates
Borax26.4.1.1Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Pentaborates
Probertite26.5.12.1NaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Ulexite26.5.11.1NaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Hexaborates
Rivadavite26.6.1.1Na6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2O
Tunellite26.6.6.2SrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Miscellaneous
Tertschite (TL)26.7.5.1Ca4B10O19 · 20H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Ningyoite40.4.8.1CaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Hydroxylapatite41.8.1.3Ca5(PO4)3(OH)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
var. Bakerite54.2.1b.1Ca4(H5B5Si3O20)
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and/or >[4] coordination
Lawsonite56.2.3.1CaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Piemontite58.2.1a.11{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Jadeite65.1.3c.1Na(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Omphacite65.1.3b.1(NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(AleFe3+fFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Glaucophane66.1.3c.1◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Tremolite66.1.3a.1◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Dickite71.1.1.1Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Halloysite'71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Lizardite71.1.2b.2Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var. Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Paragonite71.2.2a.2NaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pyrophyllite71.2.1.1Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Corrensite71.4.2.5(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined islands
Stilpnomelane74.1.1.1(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Andradite-Grossular Series'-
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Aragonite-CaCO3
Barroisite-◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Calcite
var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
-(Ca,Mn)CO3
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clays'-
'Clinoptilolite'-$m3-6(Si30Al6)O72 · 20H2O
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Diopside-Hedenbergite Series'-
'Epidote Group'-{A12+A22+M13+M23+M33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Gold
var. Electrum
-(Au,Ag)
Hematite
var. Specularite
-Fe2O3
'Heulandite'-
'Hornblende'-
Hydroxylapatite
var. Carbonate-rich Hydroxylapatite
-Ca5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Iron-Fe
'K Feldspar'-
'var. Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Magnetite
var. Titaniferous Magnetite
-Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
'Mica Group'-
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var. Phengite
-KAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
var. Sericite-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Nacrite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Natroalunite-NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Opal
var. Opal-CT
-SiO2 · nH2O
var. Opaline-SiO2 · nH2O
'Opalite'-
'Orthopyroxene Subgroup'-
'Psilomelane'-Mn, O
Pyrite
var. Arsenian Pyrite
-FeS2
'Pyroxene Group'-
Quartz
var. Amethyst
-SiO2
var. Chalcedony-SiO2
var. Chrome-Chalcedony-SiO2
var. Jasper-SiO2
'Rock flour'-
'Scapolite'-
'Serpentine Subgroup'-D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Thorianite
var. Uranothorianite
-(Th,U)O2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Tungsten-W
'Wad'-
'Wolframite'-(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H TertschiteCa4B10O19 · 20H2O
H Epidote Group{A12+A22+M13+M23+M33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
H DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
H BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
H TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
H ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
H UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
H ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
H HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
H Clinoptilolite$m3-6(Si30Al6)O72 · 20H2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Actinolite◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H Opal var. OpalineSiO2 · nH2O
H Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
H Muscovite var. PhengiteKAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
H Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
H HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
H Datolite var. BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
H Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Barroisite◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
H TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
H Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
H RivadaviteNa6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2O
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H Opal var. Opal-CTSiO2 · nH2O
H ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
H Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
H Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Hydroxylapatite var. Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
H HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
H BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
H NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
H DiasporeAlO(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
BBoron
B TertschiteCa4B10O19 · 20H2O
B PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
B BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
B ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
B UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
B ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
B HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
B MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
B HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
B Datolite var. BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
B InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
B TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
B RivadaviteNa6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2O
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C CerussitePbCO3
C TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C AragoniteCaCO3
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C MagnesiteMgCO3
C SideriteFeCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
C Hydroxylapatite var. Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
C BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
C Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
OOxygen
O TertschiteCa4B10O19 · 20H2O
O Epidote Group{A12+A22+M13+M23+M33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
O HematiteFe2O3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O TrevoriteNi2+Fe23+O4
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Hematite var. SpeculariteFe2O3
O PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
O DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O BaryteBaSO4
O Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O RutileTiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O CerussitePbCO3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Quartz var. ChalcedonySiO2
O NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
O BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
O TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
O CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
O ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
O UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
O ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
O HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O Clinoptilolite$m3-6(Si30Al6)O72 · 20H2O
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
O AragoniteCaCO3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O PyrolusiteMn4+O2
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Actinolite◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O Opal var. OpalineSiO2 · nH2O
O Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
O MagnesiteMgCO3
O Quartz var. Chrome-ChalcedonySiO2
O Quartz var. AmethystSiO2
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
O LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O Muscovite var. PhengiteKAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
O Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O SideriteFeCO3
O MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
O HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
O Datolite var. BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
O Omphacite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(AleFef3+Feg2+Mgh)Si2O6
O Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O Barroisite◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O CristobaliteSiO2
O TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
O Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
O RivadaviteNa6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O CelestineSrSO4
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O Opal var. Opal-CTSiO2 · nH2O
O CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
O PsilomelaneMn, O
O ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
O Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
O Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
O Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O Magnetite var. Titaniferous MagnetiteFe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Hydroxylapatite var. Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
O HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
O BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
O NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
O DiasporeAlO(OH)
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O K Feldspar var. AdulariaKAlSi3O8
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
O Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
O AnataseTiO2
O CorundumAl2O3
O ThorianiteThO2
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O UraniniteUO2
O Thorianite var. Uranothorianite(Th,U)O2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O SpinelMgAl2O4
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Na BoraxNa2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Na TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Na UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Na ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Na Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Na JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na Omphacite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(AleFef3+Feg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Na Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Na ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Na Barroisite◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Na Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Na RivadaviteNa6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2O
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Mg HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Mg Actinolite◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Mg Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mg MagnesiteMgCO3
Mg Muscovite var. PhengiteKAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Mg Omphacite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(AleFef3+Feg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Mg Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg Barroisite◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Mg Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Mg RivadaviteNa6Mg[B6O7(OH)6]4 · 10H2O
Mg BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg SpinelMgAl2O4
AlAluminium
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Al Clinoptilolite$m3-6(Si30Al6)O72 · 20H2O
Al Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Al LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Al Muscovite var. PhengiteKAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Omphacite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(AleFef3+Feg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Al Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Barroisite◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Al Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al DiasporeAlO(OH)
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al K Feldspar var. AdulariaKAlSi3O8
Al CorundumAl2O3
Al SpinelMgAl2O4
SiSilicon
Si Epidote Group{A12+A22+M13+M23+M33+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si LizarditeMg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Quartz var. ChalcedonySiO2
Si NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Si Clinoptilolite$m3-6(Si30Al6)O72 · 20H2O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Si Actinolite◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si Opal var. OpalineSiO2 · nH2O
Si Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Si Quartz var. Chrome-ChalcedonySiO2
Si Quartz var. AmethystSiO2
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Si LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si Muscovite var. PhengiteKAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Si Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
Si Datolite var. BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si Omphacite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(AleFef3+Feg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Si Glaucophane◻[Na2][Mg3Al2]Si8O22(OH)2
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Barroisite◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Si Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si Opal var. Opal-CTSiO2 · nH2O
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si K Feldspar var. AdulariaKAlSi3O8
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P Hydroxylapatite var. Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
P HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
P NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
SSulfur
S UllmanniteNiSbS
S ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
S GersdorffiteNiAsS
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BaryteBaSO4
S PyriteFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S DigeniteCu9S5
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CovelliteCuS
S Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4$c22+)Sb4S12S
S PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
S OrpimentAs2S3
S StibniteSb2S3
S TroiliteFeS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S MarcasiteFeS2
S CinnabarHgS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S CobaltiteCoAsS
S AcanthiteAg2S
S StephaniteAg5SbS4
S BillingsleyiteAg7AsS6
S JalpaiteAg3CuS2
S LenaiteAgFeS2
S Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
S MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
S UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S CelestineSrSO4
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S RealgarAs4S4
S SulphurS8
S CubaniteCuFe2S3
S IdaiteCu5FeS6
S AikinitePbCuBiS3
S EmplectiteCuBiS2
S Tennantite SubgroupCu6(Cu4$c22+)As4S12S
S Pyrite var. Arsenian PyriteFeS2
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S BursaitePb5Bi4S11 (?)
ClChlorine
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K Muscovite var. IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
K Muscovite var. PhengiteKAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite var. SericiteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
K Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
K CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K K Feldspar var. AdulariaKAlSi3O8
CaCalcium
Ca TertschiteCa4B10O19 · 20H2O
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2O
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Ca ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2O
Ca UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2O
Ca ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2O
Ca HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2O
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Ca AragoniteCaCO3
Ca Actinolite◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Ca Tremolite◻{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca LawsoniteCaAl2(Si2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
Ca Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2O
Ca HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
Ca Datolite var. BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2O
Ca Omphacite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(AleFef3+Feg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Barroisite◻{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
Ca KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca Hydroxylapatite var. Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
Ca HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Ca NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca FluoriteCaF2
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Ti Magnetite var. Titaniferous MagnetiteFe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Ti AnataseTiO2
CrChromium
Cr ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
MnManganese
Mn PyrolusiteMn4+O2
Mn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Mn Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Mn CryptomelaneK(Mn74+Mn3+)O16
Mn PsilomelaneMn, O
Mn ManganiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite(Ca,Mn)CO3
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Mn Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Mn Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
FeIron
Fe AwaruiteNi3Fe
Fe ChromiteFe2+Cr23+O4
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe TrevoriteNi2+Fe23+O4
Fe ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Fe Hematite var. SpeculariteFe2O3
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Fe PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
Fe Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2O
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe Iron var. Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
Fe Taenite(Fe,Ni)
Fe TroiliteFeS
Fe IronFe
Fe Actinolite◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe JadeiteNa(Al,Fe3+)Si2O6
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe Muscovite var. PhengiteKAl1.5(Mg,Fe)0.5(Al0.5Si3.5O10)(OH)2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
Fe LenaiteAgFeS2
Fe Omphacite(NaaCabFec2+Mgd)(AleFef3+Feg2+Mgh)Si2O6
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3[AlSi3O10(OH)2
Fe Stilpnomelane(K,Ca,Na)(Fe,Mg,Al)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36 · nH2O
Fe Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Magnetite var. Titaniferous MagnetiteFe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe CubaniteCuFe2S3
Fe IdaiteCu5FeS6
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe Pyrite var. Arsenian PyriteFeS2
Fe Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
CoCobalt
Co CobaltiteCoAsS
NiNickel
Ni AwaruiteNi3Fe
Ni NickelineNiAs
Ni RammelsbergiteNiAs2
Ni TrevoriteNi2+Fe23+O4
Ni UllmanniteNiSbS
Ni ViolariteFe2+Ni23+S4
Ni GersdorffiteNiAsS
Ni Iron var. Kamacite(Fe,Ni)
Ni Taenite(Fe,Ni)
Ni Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
CuCopper
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu DigeniteCu9S5
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4$c22+)Sb4S12S
Cu CopperCu
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu JalpaiteAg3CuS2
Cu Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Cu MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu CubaniteCuFe2S3
Cu IdaiteCu5FeS6
Cu AikinitePbCuBiS3
Cu EmplectiteCuBiS2
Cu Tennantite SubgroupCu6(Cu4$c22+)As4S12S
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn Serpentine SubgroupD3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Zn Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
AsArsenic
As NickelineNiAs
As RammelsbergiteNiAs2
As GersdorffiteNiAsS
As OrpimentAs2S3
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
As CobaltiteCoAsS
As BillingsleyiteAg7AsS6
As Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
As RealgarAs4S4
As Tennantite SubgroupCu6(Cu4$c22+)As4S12S
SeSelenium
Se NaumanniteAg2Se
SrStrontium
Sr TunelliteSrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Sr CelestineSrSO4
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag Gold var. Electrum(Au,Ag)
Ag SilverAg
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag StephaniteAg5SbS4
Ag BillingsleyiteAg7AsS6
Ag JalpaiteAg3CuS2
Ag LenaiteAgFeS2
Ag Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Ag MckinstryiteAg5-xCu3+xS4
Ag UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2
Ag HessiteAg2Te
Ag EmpressiteAgTe
Ag NaumanniteAg2Se
SbAntimony
Sb UllmanniteNiSbS
Sb Tetrahedrite SubgroupCu6(Cu4$c22+)Sb4S12S
Sb StibniteSb2S3
Sb CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4
Sb StephaniteAg5SbS4
Sb Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
TeTellurium
Te HessiteAg2Te
Te EmpressiteAgTe
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Romanèchite(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
CeCerium
Ce NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
W TungstenW
W Wolframite(Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
AuGold
Au GoldAu
Au Gold var. Electrum(Au,Ag)
Au UytenbogaardtiteAg3AuS2
HgMercury
Hg MercuryHg
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb CerussitePbCO3
Pb AikinitePbCuBiS3
Pb BursaitePb5Bi4S11 (?)
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
Bi AikinitePbCuBiS3
Bi EmplectiteCuBiS2
Bi BursaitePb5Bi4S11 (?)
ThThorium
Th ThorianiteThO2
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Th Thorianite var. Uranothorianite(Th,U)O2
UUranium
U BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2O
U NingyoiteCaU(PO4)2 · 1-2H2O
U UraniniteUO2
U Thorianite var. Uranothorianite(Th,U)O2

Fossils

There are 49 fossil localities from the PaleoBioDB database within this region.

BETA TEST - These data are provided on an experimental basis and are taken from external databases. Mindat.org has no control currently over the accuracy of these data.

Occurrences1358
Youngest Fossil Listed0.01 Ma (Pleistocene)
Oldest Fossil Listed445 Ma (Late Ordovician)
Stratigraphic UnitsClick here to view 15 stratigraphic units.
Fossils from RegionClick here to show the list.
Accepted NameHierarchy Age
Spumellaria
order
Chromista : Radiozoa : Polycystina : Spumellaria252.17 - 247.2 Ma
Phanerozoic
Stigmosphaerostylus
genus
Chromista : Radiozoa : Polycystina : Entactiniidae : Stigmosphaerostylus252.17 - 247.2 Ma
Phanerozoic
Agathammina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Miliolida : Hemigordiopsidae : Agathammina228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Ammobaculites
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Globothalamea : Lituolida : Lituolidae : Ammobaculites228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Aulotortus
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Involutinida : Involutinidae : Aulotortus228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Biwaella
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Schubertellidae : Biwaella298.9 - 295.5 Ma
Paleozoic
Boultonia
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Boultoniidae : Boultonia298.9 - 295.5 Ma
Paleozoic
Coronipora
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Involutinida : Trocholinidae : Coronipora228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Cyclammina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Globothalamea : Loftusiida : Cyclamminidae : Cyclammina139.8 - 132.9 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Duotaxis
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Globothalamea : Lituolida : Verneuilinidae : Duotaxis228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Galeanella
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Miliolida : Milioliporidae : Galeanella228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Gaudryina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Globothalamea : Lituolida : Verneuilinidae : Gaudryina228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Glomospirella
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Spirillinida : Ammodiscidae : Glomospirella228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Gsollbergella
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Miliolida : Ophthalmidiidae : Gsollbergella228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Miliolipora
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Miliolida : Milioliporidae : Miliolipora228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Nankinella
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Nankinellidae : Nankinella298.9 - 295.5 Ma
Paleozoic
Nummulites
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Globothalamea : Rotaliida : Nummulitidae : Nummulites47.8 - 38 Ma
Eocene
Occidentoschwagerina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Triticitidae : Occidentoschwagerina298.9 - 295.5 Ma
Paleozoic
Ophthalmidium
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Miliolida : Ophthalmidiidae : Ophthalmidium228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Pilammina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Spirillinida : Ammodiscidae : Pilammina228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Planiinvoluta
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Miliolida : Cornuspiridae : Planiinvoluta228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Pseudobolivina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Globothalamea : Lituolida : Pseudobolivinidae : Pseudobolivina228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Pseudofusulina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Pseudofusulinidae : Pseudofusulina298.9 - 295.5 Ma
Paleozoic
Reophax
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Globothalamea : Lituolida : Reophacidae : Reophax228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Rugosochusenella
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Schwagerinidae : Rugosochusenella298.9 - 295.5 Ma
Paleozoic
Semiinvoluta
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Involutinida : Trocholinidae : Semiinvoluta228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Sigmoilina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Miliolida : Hauerinidae : Sigmoilina228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Sphaeroschwagerina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Triticitidae : Sphaeroschwagerina298.9 - 295.5 Ma
Paleozoic
Tetrataxis
genus
Foraminifera : Tetrataxidae : Tetrataxis228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Textularia
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Globothalamea : Textulariida : Textulariidae : Textularia228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Turrispirillina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Spirillinida : Spirillinidae : Turrispirillina228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Catenipora
genus
Animalia : Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Halysitidae : Catenipora433.4 - 427.4 Ma
Silurian
Halysites
genus
Animalia : Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Favositidae : Halysites433.4 - 427.4 Ma
Silurian
Pleurodictyum
genus
Animalia : Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Micheliniidae : Pleurodictyum410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Thamnopora
genus
Animalia : Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Pachyporidae : Thamnopora445.2 - 443.4 Ma
Paleozoic
Pentaphyllum
genus
Animalia : Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Pentaphyllidae : Pentaphyllum402.5 - 387.7 Ma
Devonian
Cladophyllia
genus
Animalia : Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Scleractinia : Faviidae : Cladophyllia139.8 - 132.9 Ma
Early Cretaceous
Tubiphytes
genus
Nigriporellidae : Tubiphytes228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Cyclostomaria
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Pleurotomariida : Gosseletinidae : Cyclostomaria189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Dimorphotectus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Dimorphotectus189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Emersonia
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Lepetellida : Fissurellidae : Emersonia189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Eucyclomphalus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Seguenziida : Eucyclidae : Eucyclomphalus189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Lepidotrochus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Pleurotomariida : Cirridae : Lepidotrochus247.2 - 221.5 Ma
Triassic
Pleurotomaria
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Trochida : Microdomatidae : Pleurotomaria237 - 41.3 Ma
Phanerozoic
Velates
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Cycloneritida : Neritidae : Velates47.8 - 41.3 Ma
Eocene
Chemnitzia
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Pyramidellidae : Chemnitzia237 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Promathildia
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Allogastropoda : Gordenellidae : Promathildia189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Pleuronautilus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Nautilida : Tainoceratidae : Pleuronautilus247.2 - 221.5 Ma
Triassic
Acrochordiceras
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Ammonoidea : Acrochordiceratidae : Acrochordiceras247.2 - 221.5 Ma
Triassic
Balatonites
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Ammonoidea : Balatonitidae : Balatonites247.2 - 221.5 Ma
Triassic
Beyrichites
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Ammonoidea : Ceratitidae : Beyrichites247.2 - 221.5 Ma
Triassic
Hollandites
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Ammonoidea : Ceratitidae : Hollandites247.2 - 221.5 Ma
Triassic
Pinacoceras
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Ammonoidea : Pinacoceratidae : Pinacoceras247.2 - 221.5 Ma
Triassic
Proarcestes
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Ammonoidea : Arcestidae : Proarcestes247.2 - 242 Ma
Triassic
Ptychites
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Ammonoidea : Ptychitidae : Ptychites247.2 - 242 Ma
Triassic
Monophyllites
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Ammonoidea : Ussuritidae : Monophyllites247.2 - 242 Ma
Triassic
Baculites
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Cephalopoda : Ammonoidea : Baculitidae : Baculites83.6 - 72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Nucula
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Nuculanida : Nuculanidae : Nucula237 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Nuculana
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Nuculanida : Nuculanidae : Nuculana189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Nuculites
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Nuculanida : Malletiidae : Nuculites410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Nuculoidea
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Nuculida : Nuculidae : Nuculoidea410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Palaeoneilo
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Nuculanida : Malletiidae : Palaeoneilo410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Palaeonucula
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Nuculida : Nuculidae : Palaeonucula189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Phestia
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Nuculanida : Nuculanidae : Phestia410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Parallelodon
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Arcida : Parallelodontidae : Parallelodon189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Mytilus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Mytilida : Mytilidae : Mytilus237 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Actinopteria
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Ostreida : Pterineidae : Actinopteria410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Cataceramus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Cataceramus83.6 - 72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Inoceramus (Cordiceramus)
subgenus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Myalinida : Inoceramidae : Inoceramus : Inoceramus (Cordiceramus)83.6 - 72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Inoceramus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Myalinida : Inoceramidae : Inoceramus83.6 - 72.1 Ma
Late Cretaceous
Leptodesma (Leiopteria)
subgenus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Ostreida : Pterineidae : Leptodesma : Leptodesma (Leiopteria)410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Lima
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Limida : Limidae : Lima247.2 - 221.5 Ma
Triassic
Mytiloides
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Myalinida : Inoceramidae : Mytiloides189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Ostrea
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Ostreida : Ostreidae : Ostraea237 - 0.0117 Ma
Phanerozoic
Pecten
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Pectinida : Pectinidae : Pecten237 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Placunopsis
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Pectinida : Anomiidae : Placunopsis189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Pseudolimea
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Limida : Limidae : Pseudolimea189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Pterinopecten
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Pectinida : Pterinopectinidae : Pterinopecten410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Spondylus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Pectinida : Spondylidae : Spondylus47.8 - 41.3 Ma
Eocene
Goniophora
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Modiomorphida : Modiomorphidae : Goniophora410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Eoschizodus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Trigoniida : Eoschizodidae : Eoschizodus410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Hefteria
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Trigoniida : Hefteria410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Schizodus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Trigoniida : Schizodidae : Schizodus237 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Toechomya
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Trigoniida : Myophoriidae : Toechomya410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Abra
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Cardiida : Semelidae : Abra0.126 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Cypricardinia
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Carditida : Cardiniidae : Cypricardinia410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Ensis
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Adapedonta : Pharidae : Ensis0.126 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Fimbria
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Lucinida : Lucinidae : Fimbria237 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Lucina
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Lucinida : Lucinidae : Lucina47.8 - 41.3 Ma
Eocene
Mactra
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Venerida : Mactridae : Mactra11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Myoconcha
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Venerida : Kalenteridae : Myoconcha189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Paracyclas
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Hippuritida : Cycloconchidae : Paracyclas410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Petricola
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Venerida : Veneridae : Petricola0.126 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Physocardia
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Venerida : Physocardia247.2 - 242 Ma
Triassic
Venerupis
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Venerida : Veneridae : Venerupis0.126 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Cimitaria
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Grammysiidae : Cimitaria410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Grammysia
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Grammysiidae : Grammysia410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Orthonota
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Unionida : Iridinidae : Orthonota410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Pholadomya
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Pholadomyidae : Pholadomya189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Pleurodapis
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Pleurodapis410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Thracia
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Thraciidae : Thracia0.126 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Acastoides
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Trilobita : Phacopida : Acastidae : Acastoides410.8 - 387.7 Ma
Devonian
Centauropyge
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Trilobita : Phacopida : Acastidae : Centauropyge402.5 - 387.7 Ma
Devonian
Metacanthina
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Trilobita : Phacopida : Calmoniidae : Metacanthina410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Parahomalonotus
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Trilobita : Phacopida : Homalonotidae : Parahomalonotus410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Phacops
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Trilobita : Phacopida : Phacopidae : Phacops402.5 - 387.7 Ma
Devonian
Pseudocryphaeus
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Trilobita : Phacopida : Calmoniidae : Pseudocryphaeus410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Trimerus
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Trilobita : Phacopida : Homalonotidae : Trimerus410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Ranina
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Malacostraca : Decapoda : Raninidae : Ranina47.8 - 41.3 Ma
Eocene
Acratia
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Podocopida : Acratiidae : Acratia189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Bairdia
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Podocopida : Bairdiidae : Bairdia189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Bythocypris
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Podocopida : Bythocyprididae : Bythocypris189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Ceratobairdia
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Podocopida : Bairdiidae : Ceratobairdia189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Cyprideis
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Podocopida : Cyprideis11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Paracypris
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Podocopida : Candonidae : Paracypris189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Ptychobairdia
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Podocopida : Bairdiidae : Ptychobairdia189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Cytherella
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Platycopina : Cytherellidae : Cytherella189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Comatopoma
genus
Animalia : Brachiopoda : Rhynchonellata : Orthida : Giraldiellidae : Comatopoma445.2 - 443.4 Ma
Paleozoic
Hesperorthis
genus
Animalia : Brachiopoda : Rhynchonellata : Orthida : Hesperorthidae : Hesperorthis445.2 - 443.4 Ma
Paleozoic
Leptaenopyxis
genus
Animalia : Brachiopoda : Strophomenata : Strophomenida : Rafinesquinidae : Leptaenopyxis410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Leptostrophia
genus
Animalia : Brachiopoda : Strophomenata : Strophomenida : Leptostrophiidae : Leptostrophia410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Mesodouvillina
genus
Animalia : Brachiopoda : Strophomenata : Strophomenida : Amphistrophiidae : Mesodouvillina410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Strophonella
genus
Animalia : Brachiopoda : Strophomenata : Strophomenida : Strophonellidae : Strophonella410.8 - 393.3 Ma
Early Devonian
Porosoma
genus
Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea : Camarodonta : Porosoma47.8 - 41.3 Ma
Eocene
Triplacidia
genus
Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea : Camarodonta : Triplacidiids : Triplacidia47.8 - 41.3 Ma
Eocene
Clypeaster
genus
Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea : Clypeasteroida : Clypeasteridae : Clypeaster41.3 - 38 Ma
Eocene
Echinanthus
genus
Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea : Cassiduloida : Echinanthus47.8 - 38 Ma
Eocene
Echinolampas
genus
Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea : Echinolampadoida : Echinolampadidae : Echinolampas47.8 - 38 Ma
Eocene
Galeraster
genus
Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea : Holasteroida : Corystusidae : Galeraster47.8 - 41.3 Ma
Eocene
Isaster
genus
Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea : Spatangoida : Micrasteridae : Isaster66 - 61.6 Ma
Paleocene
Parabrissus
genus
Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea : Spatangoida : Schizasteridae : Parabrissus47.8 - 41.3 Ma
Eocene
Schizaster
genus
Animalia : Echinodermata : Echinoidea : Spatangoida : Schizasteridae : Schizaster47.8 - 41.3 Ma
Eocene
Climacograptus
genus
Animalia : Hemichordata : Pterobranchia : Diplograptidae : Climacograptus445.2 - 443.4 Ma
Paleozoic
Neogondolella
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Conodonta : Ozarkodinida : Neogondolella247.2 - 242 Ma
Triassic
Cetacea
order
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Cetacea11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Discoglossidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Amphibia : Anura : Discoglossidae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Bufonidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Amphibia : Anura : Bufonidae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Trionyx
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Trionychidae : Trionyx33.9 - 5.333 Ma
Cenozoic
Sakya
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Emydidae : Sakya11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Testudo
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Testudines : Testudinidae : Testudo9.7 - 8.7 Ma
Miocene
Lacertidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Lacertidae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Anguidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Anguidae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Varanus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Varanidae : Varanus11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Viperidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Viperidae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Soricidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Soricomorpha : Soricidae15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Chiroptera
order
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Chiroptera15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Sivapithecus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Primates : Pongidae : Sivapithecus15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Viverridae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Viverridae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Ictitherium
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Ictitherium11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Percrocuta
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Percrocuta11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Protictitherium
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Hyaenidae : Protictitherium15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Felis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Felis0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Machairodus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Machairodus11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Pseudaelurus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Pseudaelurus15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Mustelidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Mustelidae11.608 - 0.126 Ma
Cenozoic
Plesiogulo
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Mustelidae : Plesiogulo15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Proputorius
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Mustelidae : Proputorius15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Trochictis
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Mustelidae : Trochictis15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Phocidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Phocidae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Cuon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Cuon0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Vulpes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Vulpes0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Plithocyon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Ursidae : Plithocyon15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Ursavus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Ursidae : Ursavus15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Oligopetes
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae : Oligopetes33.9 - 28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Sciuridae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Sciuridae33.9 - 28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Chalicomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Castoridae : Chalicomys11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Monosaulax
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Castoridae : Monosaulax11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Steneofiber
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Castoridae : Steneofiber33.9 - 28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Pseudodryomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Gliridae : Pseudodryomys15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Eomyidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Eomyidae33.9 - 28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Eomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Eomyidae : Eomys33.9 - 28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Dipodidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Dipodidae15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Muroidea
superfamily
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muroidea33.9 - 28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Byzantinia
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Byzantinia11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Cricetodon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Cricetodon15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Democricetodon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Muridae : Democricetodon15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Rhizomys
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Spalacidae : Rhizomys15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Ctenodactylidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Ctenodactylidae15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Hyotherium
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Hyotherium11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Korynochoerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Korynochoerus11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Listriodon
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Listriodon15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Microstonyx
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Microstonyx11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Schizochoerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Schizochoerus15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Hippopotamus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Hippopotamidae : Hippopotamus0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Cervidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Capreolus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae : Capreolus0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Cervus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae : Cervus0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Dama
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae : Dama0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Megaloceros
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Cervidae : Megaloceros0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Bohlinia
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Giraffidae : Bohlinia11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Palaeotragus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Giraffidae : Palaeotragus11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Samotherium
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Giraffidae : Samotherium11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Bovidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae15.97 - 8.7 Ma
Miocene
Gazella
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Gazella11.608 - 0.126 Ma
Cenozoic
Helicotragus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Prostrepsiceros11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Prostrepsiceros
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Prostrepsiceros15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Tragocerus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Tragocerus11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Anchitherium
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Anchitherium15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Hipparion
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Hipparion11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Tapirus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Tapiridae : Tapirus15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Aceratherium
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Rhinocerotidae : Aceratherium11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Diceros
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Rhinocerotidae : Diceros11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Synconolophus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Proboscidea : Gomphotheriidae : Synconolophus11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Orycteropus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Tubulidentata : Orycteropodidae : Orycteropus15.97 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Canis lupus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Canidae : Canis : Canis lupus0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Equus caballus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus : Equus caballus0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Equus (Hemionus) hemionus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Perissodactyla : Equidae : Equus : Equus (Hemionus) hemionus0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Panthera leo
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Panthera : Panthera leo0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Ursavus primaevus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Ursidae : Ursavus : Ursavus primaevus15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Ursus arctos
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Ursidae : Ursus : Ursus arctos0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Bison priscus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Bovidae : Bison : Bison priscus0.781 - 0.126 Ma
Pleistocene
Colubrinae
subfamily
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Colubridae : Colubrinae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Natricinae
subfamily
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Colubridae : Natricinae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Alloptox
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Lagomorpha : Ochotonidae : Alloptox15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Cyperaceae
family
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Liliopsida : Poales : Cyperaceae11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Pseudaelurus quadridentatus
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Felidae : Pseudaelurus : Pseudaelurus quadridentatus15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Carya
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Fagales : Juglandaceae : Carya11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Alnus
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Fagales : Betulaceae : Alnus11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Quercus
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Fagales : Fagaceae : Quercus11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Liquidambar
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Saxifragales : Altingiaceae : Liquidambar11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Acer
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Sapindales : Sapindaceae : Acer11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Polypodiaceae
family
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Polypodiopsida : Polypodiales : Polypodiaceae11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Taxodiaceae
family
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Pinopsida : Pinales : Taxodiaceae11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Lutrinae
subfamily
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Mustelidae : Lutrinae15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Pinus
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Pinopsida : Pinales : Pinaceae : Pinus11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Abies
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Pinopsida : Pinales : Pinaceae : Abies11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Pterocarya
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Fagales : Juglandaceae : Pterocarya11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Betula
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Fagales : Betulaceae : Betula11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Chenopodiaceae
family
Plantae : Spermatophyta : Magnoliopsida : Caryophyllales : Chenopodiaceae11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Ericaceae
family
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Ericales : Ericaceae11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Gramineae
family
Plantae : Angiospermae : Cyperales : Gramineae11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Fagus
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Fagales : Fagaceae : Fagus11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Ulmus
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Magnoliopsida : Rosales : Ulmaceae : Ulmus11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Amphicyon major
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Amphicyonidae : Amphicyon : Amphicyon major15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Conohyus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Artiodactyla : Suidae : Conohyus15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Pseudosciuridae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Pseudosciuridae33.9 - 28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Suevosciurus fraasi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Rodentia : Theridomyidae : Suevosciurus : Suevosciurus fraasi33.9 - 28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Anguinae
subfamily
Animalia : Chordata : Reptilia : Squamata : Anguidae : Anguinae33.9 - 28.4 Ma
Oligocene
Pelmatozoa
subphylum
Animalia : Echinodermata : Pelmatozoa445.2 - 443.4 Ma
Paleozoic
Anomiidae
family
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Pectinida : Anomiidae0.126 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Astartidae
family
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Carditida : Astartidae189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Coelostylinidae
family
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Coelostylinidae189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Pharidae
family
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Adapedonta : Pharidae0.126 - 0.0117 Ma
Pleistocene
Planorbis
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Planorbidae : Planorbis11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Pleurotomarioidea
superfamily
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Pleurotomariida : Pleurotomarioidea189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Pycnodonte
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Ostreida : Gryphaeidae : Pycnodonte41.3 - 38 Ma
Eocene
Trochoidea
superfamily
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Trochoidea189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Trochidae
family
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Trochida : Trochidae189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Unio
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Unionida : Unionidae : Unio11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Zygopleuridae
family
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Zygopleuridae189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Palaeospinacidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Chondrichthyes : Synechodontiformes : Palaeospinacidae252.17 - 251.3 Ma
Phanerozoic
Discina
genus
Animalia : Brachiopoda : Lingulata : Lingulida : Discinidae : Discina237 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Barbus
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Actinopterygii : Cypriniformes : Cyprinidae : Barbus11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Sparidae
family
Animalia : Chordata : Actinopteri : Spariformes : Sparidae11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Physeterula dubusi
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Cetacea : Physeteridae : Physeterula : Physeterula dubusi11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Bairdiacypris
genus
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Podocopida : Bairdiidae : Bairdiacypris189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Kentriodon fuchsii
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Cetacea : Kentriodontidae : Kentriodon : Kentriodon fuchsii11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Mysidioptera
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Pectinida : Limidae : Mysidioptera247.2 - 221.5 Ma
Triassic
Paleolituonella
genus
Paleolituonella228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Erinaceinae
subfamily
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Lipotyphla : Erinaceidae : Erinaceinae15.97 - 13.65 Ma
Miocene
Viviparus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Architaenioglossa : Viviparidae : Viviparus11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Trocholina
genus
Chromista : Foraminifera : Involutinida : Trocholinidae : Trocholina228 - 132.9 Ma
Mesozoic
Lissodelphis nordmanni
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Cetacea : Delphinidae : Lissodelphis : Lissodelphis nordmanni11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Lissodelphis fockii
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Cetacea : Delphinidae : Lissodelphis : Lissodelphis fockii11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Eurhinodelphis longirostris
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Cetacea : Eurhinodelphidae : Eurhinodelphis : Eurhinodelphis longirostris11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Shamovella obscura
species
Animalia : Problematica : Shamovella : Shamovella obscura228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Gyraulus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Planorbidae : Gyraulus11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Crossostomatini
tribe
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Ataphridae : Crossostomatini189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Vistilia
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Pleurotomariida : Murchisoniidae : Vistilia247.2 - 242 Ma
Triassic
Dohmella multistriatus
species
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Euomphalina : Oriostomatidae : Dohmella : Dohmella multistriatus189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Modiolus
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Bivalvia : Mytilida : Mytilidae : Modiolus237 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Otodus megalodon
species
Animalia : Chordata : Chondrichthyes : Lamniformes : Otodontidae : Otodus : Otodus megalodon11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Praepusa vindobonensis
species
Animalia : Chordata : Mammalia : Carnivora : Phocidae : Praepusa : Praepusa vindobonensis11.608 - 5.333 Ma
Miocene
Tabulata
subclass
Animalia : Cnidaria : Anthozoa : Tabulata445.2 - 443.4 Ma
Paleozoic
Miliolidae
family
Chromista : Foraminifera : Tubothalamea : Miliolida : Miliolidae228 - 201.3 Ma
Mesozoic
Valvata
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Valvatidae : Valvata11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Cytheracea
superfamily
Animalia : Arthropoda : Ostracoda : Podocopida : Cytheracea189.6 - 183 Ma
Early Jurassic
Esox
genus
Animalia : Chordata : Actinopterygii : Esociformes : Esocidae : Esox11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Picea
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Pinopsida : Pinales : Pinaceae : Picea11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Potamogeton
genus
Plantae : Tracheophyta : Liliopsida : Alismatales : Potamogetonaceae : Potamogeton11.62 - 7.246 Ma
Miocene
Stagnicola
genus
Animalia : Mollusca : Gastropoda : Lymnaeidae : Stagnicola</