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Jail Hill Road locality (Jail Hill Quarry), Haddam, Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
Jail Hill Road locality (Jail Hill Quarry)- not defined -
Haddam- not defined -
Middlesex Co.County
ConnecticutState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 28' 16'' North , 72° 30' 43'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
East Haddam9,042 (2017)4.7km
Higganum1,698 (2017)4.7km
Moodus1,413 (2017)6.2km
Chester Center1,558 (2017)9.2km
Deep River Center2,484 (2017)11.6km


This locality consists of two types of different but adjacent mineral deposits immediately east of Jail Hill Road; a narrow granitic pegmatite and, at its southern terminus, in the surrounding metamorphic rocks, a small manganese-rich deposit.

The pegmatite is a common pegmatite consisting mainly of albite, microcline, and smoky quartz with muscovite, which is typical of the Middletown district according to Stugard (1958). According to the Haddam Historical Society web site, this little pegmatite, situated on grounds belonging to the farms associated with the nearby Middlesex County jail, was discovered in 1914 "and prisoners were employed to quarry the stone which was sold to out of state firms."

According to Seaman and Gallant (1960), the geological occurrence of the Mn-rich deposit is a pod about 1.6 meters in its greatest width. It is enclosed within a quartz-biotite schist that strikes nearly north-south and dips about 75 degrees east to nearly vertical. The mineralogy of the pod is mostly spessartine (confirmed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and SEM-EDS). Along the eastern contact there is a development of massive spessartine with included rhodonite and radiated actinolite. Schooner (1961) describes the variation in spessartine here, "The color of the spessartite ranges from dark red to orange-red to yellowish-orange, with the intermediate shade predominating. Big specimens were obtained, showing virtually pure garnet; the material is very solid and unfractured". Apparently this spessartine-rich rock was first reported by Williams (circa 1945): "In a field and along the road large masses of Garnet occur in Syenite-Gneiss, near the N. Spencer house." That house corresponds to the one present just to the south of the quarry.

Schooner (1961) reports apatite as small white prisms.

The identity of the granular pink mineral(s) has been difficult to pin down. Schooner (1961) says, "rhodonite is found in irregular cleavage masses up to two inches across, embedded in massive spessartite, with some actinolite, calcite, and quartz. The rhodonite is of an attractive pink color, though stained in many places by a manganese dioxide mineral; brown and green materials, perhaps rarer manganese silicates, are associated in some specimens." Later, however, Schooner reported that the Mn-rich deposit was studied by the University of Michigan and USGS, which did numerous X-ray diffraction identifications. They changed the "rhodonite" to bustamite and pyroxmangite (a polymorph of rhodonite) and many other Mn minerals were identified. Schooner alludes to this research in his circa 1990 unpublished manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy. However, a 2014 Raman spectroscopic analysis of a fine-grained pink mass, initially identified as rhodonite by Charles and Marcelle Weber, confirmed its ID as rhodonite. SEM-EDS analyses done in 2019 by Micromounters New England on several specimens posted here did not identify any pink grains as bustamite, but only as rhodonite/pyroxmangite polymorphs and one as rhodochrosite. All four minerals could be present. Some brown granular specimens labeled as tephroite proved to be spessartine, but one has a darker brown area that is tephroite.

As of 2006, massive spessartine and tiny crystals in quartz could still be found there.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


39 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Habit: elongated, striated, subhedral prisms
Colour: light to dark green
Description: As sub-cm grains in a nearly pure actinolite rock or as scattered grains with other minerals.
Reference: Seaman, David M. and Robert P. Gallant (1960): SPESSARTITE GARNET WITH HEXOCTAHEDRAL FACES FROM JAIL HILL, HADDAM, CONNECTICUT Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 35, Nos. 9-10, pp. 445-8.; Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT & Southeastern NY State, p.229.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Habit: anhedral, twinned grains
Colour: white
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Alleghanyite
Formula: Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Colour: reddish
Description: Found by Dick Schooner. A segregation over a foot in diameter, it consisted mainly of reddish alleghanyite and pinkish kutnohorite, with accessories. Unfortunately, only a few specimens were saved.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: trapezohedral
Colour: maroon
Description: As grains and small crystals in the pegmatite matrix.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Fluorescence: green
Reference: Field collected by FE Davis, fluorescence, radioactivity
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: cleavable masses
Colour: white
Description: White cleavages, up to two inches broad, accompanied tirodite in the spessartine lens at the Jail Hill quarry in Haddam. This was X-rayed for verification.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Bementite ?
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Description: Reported by Dick Schooner, reference gives no details.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT & Southeastern NY State, p.229, 234.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Habit: subhedral tabular
Colour: black
Description: Mostly in the schist surrounding the pegmatite and Mn-rich pod, though some biotite is mixed with spessartine along the latter's contact.
Reference: Seaman, David M. and Robert P. Gallant (1960): SPESSARTITE GARNET WITH HEXOCTAHEDRAL FACES FROM JAIL HILL, HADDAM, CONNECTICUT Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 35, Nos. 9-10, pp. 445-8.
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Habit: encrustation
Colour: black
Description: "This is one of the manganese oxides identified as a component of the soft black alteration crusts on tephroite, etc."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Habit: cleavable masses
Colour: light pink
Description: When the author discovered a large lens of spessartine at the Jail Hill quarry, in the 1950s, a few good specimens of pink "rhodonite" were collected. Two different shades were associated differently, one with spessartine and calcite (or dolomite), the other with tephroite and pyrophanite. X-ray and spectrographic tests have shown the lighter pink mineral to be bustamite, and the darker one pyroxmangite. In some cases, bustamite is intimately intergrown with johannsenite (probably an exsolution product).
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Habit: anhedral
Colour: white
Description: Minor accessory in the Mn deposit.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Description: This was identified (at the University of Michigan) as a very minor component of "ore" from the manganese pod at the Jail Hill quarry in Haddam.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Colour: Black
Description: Micro crystals in the pegmatite matrix, species undetermined.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Dolomite ?
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Colour: white
Description: "At the Jail Hill quarry in Haddam, tephroite-spessartine-alleghanyite-bustamite "ore" contains a white to light pink dolomite carbonate. The pink is known to be kutnohorite (studied at the University of Michigan); the white seems to be just dolomite." Could just be calcite, which is present.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Ferri-ghoseite
Formula: ☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Habit: lamellar or bladed
Colour: tan or green
Description: Reported by Dick Schooner as "Tirodite", reference below provides no details. An XRD analysis of a sample labeled "tirodite" from Dick Schooner's collection could not differentiate it from actinolite. However, Schooner (circa 1990) reports: "Tan or green tirodite, lamellar and bladed, was rather common at the Jail Hill quarry, usually with only spessartine or barite. Masses two inches across have been preserved. A few little silky-fibrous tufts proved to be tirodite, also. This material was studied at the University of Michigan." A dark green amphibole-rich Schooner specimen labeled as "tirodite" (photo 983892) was analysed via SEM-EDS by Micromounters New England in 2019 and was found to be ferro-actinolite (no Mn).
Reference: Januzzi (1976) p.229, 235; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1990), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Ferro-actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Habit: anhedral
Colour: very dark green
Description: As sub-cm grains in amphibolite rock with frosty, fine-grained scapolite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Colour: colorless, white
Description: Seaman and Gallant (1960) report "Along the southern contact [of the Mn pod] where most of the small garnets occur, some tiny colorless and white apatite crystals were found in small vugs and seams, implanted on the faces of the garnets." Probably also as accessory grains in the pegmatite.
Reference: Seaman, David M. and Robert P. Gallant (1960): SPESSARTITE GARNET WITH HEXOCTAHEDRAL FACES FROM JAIL HILL, HADDAM, CONNECTICUT Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 35, Nos. 9-10, pp. 445-8.; Rocks & Min.: 70:403
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Habit: massive
Colour: pale green to pale lavender
Fluorescence: none
Description: Massive, fine-grained with "frosty" luster, associated with actinolite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Galaxite ?
Formula: Mn2+Al2O4
Colour: dark green
Description: A dusting of a dark green mineral is seen in alleghanyite-kutnohorite specimens from the Jail Hill quarry. X-ray diffraction of a mixed sample shows faint peaks that correspond rather well to galaxite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection
Groutite ?
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Description: Reportedly one of the black Mn-rich alteration crusts.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Jacobsite
Formula: Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Description: "Specimens of tephroite from the Jail Hill quarry contain magnetic grains, shown (by X-ray and microprobe study at the University of Michigan) to be jacobsite. The material ranges from ferroan jacobsite to manganoan magnetite, within individual grains. A few specimens show it rather abundantly." Specimens are in the Harvard Mineralogical Museum.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Johannsenite ?
Formula: CaMn2+Si2O6
Colour: tan or gray
Description: Fibrous tan or gray johannsenite is intergrown with pink bustamite in a few specimens from the Jail Hill quarry. The X-ray pattern indicates a clinopyroxene, and spectrographic analysis shows calcium and manganese as the principal cations of both minerals. The association is entirely characteristic.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Kutnohorite
Formula: CaMn2+(CO3)2
Habit: massive
Colour: pink
Description: "Light pink kutnohorite (verified at the University of Michigan) is the matrix for abundant reddish grains of alleghanyite (or an alleghanyite-like mineral) in the material collected, around 1960, at the Jail Hill quarry. Tephroite, jacobsite, and pyrophanite are also associated."
Reference: Januzzi (1976) p. 229, 235; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Habit: anhedral to subhedral prisms
Colour: tan
Description: As a primary constituent of the pegmatite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Microcline var: Hyalophane
Formula: (K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Habit: prismatic
Colour: pale yellow-white
Description: "A few nicely formed yellowish hyalophane crystals (adularia type) were found in vugs of spessartine crystals at the Jail Hill quarry in Haddam, associated with a lens of manganese silicates and oxides. Spectrographic analysis indicates the hyalophane is manganoan." Schooner (circa 1985). Crystals reach about 1 cm.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: tabular, subhedral
Colour: silvery
Description: As a primary constituent of the pegmatite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection
Phenakite ?
Formula: Be2SiO4
Description: Richard Schooner collected a specimen showing a few "tiny colorless" crystals described as "short-prismatic, with compound terminations" in a vug with spessartine crystals. Gunnar Bjareby identified them as phenakite. Anthony Albini now possesses what appears to be this specimen. The crystals visually resemble fluorapatite as described by Seaman and Gallant (1960), have the hardness of fluorapatite and fluoresce yellow-white.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection;
Pyrophanite
Formula: Mn2+TiO3
Habit: tabular
Colour: dark red to black
Description: "Very small brilliant tabular crystals, looking black through dark red under strong magnification, are commonly embedded in tephroite, kutnohorite, pyroxymangite, and spessartine from the Jail Hill quarry. Studies at the USGS and the University of Michigan have confirmed the identification."
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT & Southeastern NY State, p.229, 235; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Pyroxmangite
Formula: MnSiO3
Habit: cleavable masses
Colour: pink
Description: Bustamite and pyroxmangite occurred at the Jail Hill quarry; one light pink, with spessartine and dolomite; the other a deeper pink, and with a more fibrous cleavage, associated with tephroite and yellow spessartine. X-ray patterns were carefully studied and spectrographic tests made. Only a few rich specimens were found. Earlier, both of these minerals had been dismissed as "rhodonite".
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: mostly anhedral, micro prismatic crystals in tiny pockets
Colour: white
Description: Massive material predominates, but a tiny prismatic crystals occur in tiny pockets in the massive spessartine, with crystals of the latter.
Reference: Seaman, David M. and Robert P. Gallant (1960): SPESSARTITE GARNET WITH HEXOCTAHEDRAL FACES FROM JAIL HILL, HADDAM, CONNECTICUT Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 35, Nos. 9-10, pp. 445-8.
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Habit: anhedral
Colour: gray
Description: As a primary constituent of the pegmatite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Habit: granular
Colour: pink
Description: Grains with granular spessartine and tephroite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Rhodonite
Formula: Mn2+SiO3
Habit: subhedral grains
Colour: pink
Description: The validity of this species here has flip-flopped over the decades. Some reference refute it, saying confusion with bustamite and pyroxmangite, but at least one specimen confirmed by Raman spectroscopy by Paul Bartholomew, U. of New Haven, 2014.
Reference: Seaman, David M. and Robert P. Gallant (1960): SPESSARTITE GARNET WITH HEXOCTAHEDRAL FACES FROM JAIL HILL, HADDAM, CONNECTICUT Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 35, Nos. 9-10, pp. 445-8; Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT & Southeastern NY State, p.229; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Habit: subhedral elongated prisms
Colour: black
Description: Tiny grains in calcite of the Mn pod.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
'Scapolite' ?
Colour: creamy to lavendar
Description: Fine-grained, frosty material associated with ferro-actinolite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Spessartine
Formula: Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Habit: trapezohedral modified by the hexoctahedron and dodecahedron
Colour: dark red to orange-red to yellowish-orange
Description: Mostly massive, cherty looking with conchoidal fracture, hundreds of pounds have been recovered; the small crystals, which range from microscopic up to a half of an inch in diameter, are of a brighter orange-red color. Most of the small crystals show the trapezohedron as the dominant crystal form modified by the hexoctahedron. Some show the trapezohedron modified by both the hexoctahedron and the dodecahedron. Associated with quartz, bustamite-pyroxmangite-alleghanyite, tephroite, actinolite. Confirmed as spessartine using XRD, XRF and Raman spectroscopy. One of the few bona-fide spessartine localities in Connecticut.
Reference: Seaman, David M. and Robert P. Gallant (1960): SPESSARTITE GARNET WITH HEXOCTAHEDRAL FACES FROM JAIL HILL, HADDAM, CONNECTICUT Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 35, Nos. 9-10, pp. 445-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1961): THE MINERALOGY OF CONNECTICUT.; Rocks & Min.: 70:403; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Tephroite
Formula: Mn2+2SiO4
Habit: anhedral
Colour: tan, brown, dark brown
Description: Reported by Dick Schooner. Specimens mostly are pure masses of anhedral grains, or scattered grains associated with bustamite and spessartine, all with black staining. According to Schooner: "Several bodies of more complex mineralogy, within the spessartine, consisted for the most part of brownish tephroite, intimately intergrown with dolomite and kutnohorite, as well as yellow spessartine, alleghanyite, jacobsite, pyrophanite, etc. A few solid dark gray resinous-looking cleavages, up to an inch, were obtained. The main concentration was eventually removed as a boulder, over two feet in diameter, which may well hold the world's record for toughness; it took the author two days of steady pounding to reduce it!"
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT & Southeastern NY State, p.229, 235; Harold Moritz collection; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Description: Schooner (circa 1980s) states that there were rich specimens of anatase that are pseudomorphs after titanite.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:403; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Todorokite ?
Formula: (Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Colour: black
Description: Reportedly one of the black Mn-rich alteration crusts.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Habit: octahedral
Colour: black
Description: An accessory in the pegmatite.
Reference: Field collected by FE Davis, crystal habit, physical features, radioactivity

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Birnessite4.FL.45(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Galaxite ?4.BB.05Mn2+Al2O4
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite ?4.FD.10Mn3+O(OH)
Jacobsite4.BB.05Mn2+Fe3+2O4
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Pyrophanite4.CB.05Mn2+TiO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Todorokite ?4.DK.10(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Dolomite ?5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
Kutnohorite5.AB.10CaMn2+(CO3)2
Rhodochrosite5.AB.05MnCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Autunite8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Alleghanyite9.AF.45Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Bementite ?9.EE.05Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Bustamite9.DG.05CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Caryopilite9.ED.15Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Ferri-ghoseite9.DE.20☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Ferro-actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Johannsenite ?9.DA.15CaMn2+Si2O6
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
var: Hyalophane9.FA.30(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Phenakite ?9.AA.05Be2SiO4
Pyroxmangite9.DO.05MnSiO3
Rhodonite9.DK.05Mn2+SiO3
Spessartine9.AD.25Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Tephroite9.AC.05Mn2+2SiO4
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Scapolite' ?-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Pyrophanite4.3.5.3Mn2+TiO3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Groutite ?6.1.1.3Mn3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Galaxite ?7.2.1.2Mn2+Al2O4
Jacobsite7.2.2.2Mn2+Fe3+2O4
(AB)2X3
Birnessite7.5.3.1(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
AB3X7
Todorokite ?7.8.1.1(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Rhodochrosite14.1.1.4MnCO3
AB(XO3)2
Dolomite ?14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Kutnohorite14.2.1.3CaMn2+(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [4] coordination
Phenakite ?51.1.1.1Be2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Tephroite51.3.1.4Mn2+2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Spessartine51.4.3a.3Mn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Alleghanyite52.3.2b.1Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Johannsenite ?65.1.3a.4CaMn2+Si2O6
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Bustamite65.2.1.2CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
Rhodonite65.4.1.1Mn2+SiO3
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=7
Pyroxmangite65.6.1.1MnSiO3
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Ferri-ghoseite66.1.1.4☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Caryopilite71.1.2b.1Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
var: Hyalophane76.1.1.3(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Bementite ?78.5.2.1Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
Ferro-actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2
'Scapolite' ?-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
H CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
H GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
H Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
BeBeryllium
Be PhenakiteBe2SiO4
CCarbon
C KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C RhodochrositeMnCO3
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
OOxygen
O SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
O UraniniteUO2
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
O JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
O KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
O TephroiteMn22+SiO4
O RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O RutileTiO2
O Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
O BaryteBaSO4
O BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
O CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
O PyroxmangiteMnSiO3
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O RhodochrositeMnCO3
O Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
O GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4
O GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
O PhenakiteBe2SiO4
O Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
FFluorine
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Na Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4
Al Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
SiSilicon
Si SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
Si TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Si RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Si CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Si PyroxmangiteMnSiO3
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Si PhenakiteBe2SiO4
Si JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S BaryteBaSO4
KPotassium
K Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
CaCalcium
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Ca BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
Ti RutileTiO2
MnManganese
Mn SpessartineMn32+Al2(SiO4)3
Mn PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
Mn Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Mn AlleghanyiteMn52+(SiO4)2(OH)2
Mn JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Mn KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2
Mn TephroiteMn22+SiO4
Mn RhodoniteMn2+SiO3
Mn Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Mn BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)
Mn CaryopiliteMn32+Si2O5(OH)4
Mn PyroxmangiteMnSiO3
Mn RhodochrositeMnCO3
Mn BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
Mn GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4
Mn GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
Mn Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
Mn JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6
FeIron
Fe Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe JacobsiteMn2+Fe23+O4
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Ferro-actinolite☐{Ca2}{Fe52+}(Si8O22)(OH)2
SrStrontium
Sr Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
BaBarium
Ba Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba Todorokite(Na,Ca,K,Ba,Sr)1-x(Mn,Mg,Al)6O12 · 3-4H2O
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Williams, Horace S. (1945 [circa]): Article for New York Society of Mineralogists. Brainerd Public Library, Haddam, Connecticut.
Stugard, Frederick, Jr. (1958): Pegmatites of the Middletown Area, Connecticut. USGS Bulletin 1042-Q.
Seaman, David M. and Robert P. Gallant (1960): Spessartite Garnet With Hexoctahedral Faces From Jail Hill, Haddam, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 35(9-10): 445-448.
Schooner, Richard. (1961): The Mineralogy of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Januzzi, Ronald. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. Mineralogical Press: 228-229, 234-235.
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995): Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 403.

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