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White Rocks Quarry (Consolidated Quarry), White Rock Mining District, Middletown, Middlesex Co., Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
White Rocks Quarry (Consolidated Quarry)Quarry
White Rock Mining DistrictMining District
Middletown- not defined -
Middlesex Co.County
ConnecticutState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
41° 33' 14'' North , 72° 36' 1'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Portland5,862 (2017)4.0km
Middletown46,756 (2017)4.3km
Cromwell13,750 (2017)5.9km
Higganum1,698 (2017)7.3km
East Hampton2,691 (2017)8.5km


A pegmatite quarry operated on the so-called "Eastern Dike" of the White Rock District. It was operated by the Consolidated Feldspar Company from before 1910 to at least 1927, but was inactive during the early 1940s. Quarrying was resumed in 1959 and greatly expanded along the Eastern Dike by The Feldspar Corporation and continued until the 1970s. At this point the main quarry was filled in and now is covered by the Kleen Energy power plant, but a small satellite quarry to the immediate south and exhibiting similar mineralogy was not filled, though it is enclosed within the power plant property an no longer accessible.

Schooner (1958) called this the "upper" White Rocks quarry and due to its complex mineralogy, it is the "White Rocks" quarry cited in most references, even if not specifically differentiated from other nearby quarries.

Bastin (1910) wrote the first description of ores, quarrying, and processing operations:

At the time of the writer's visit, in November, 1908, the quarry consisted of a single open pit on a north hillside and had not been extensively worked. The rock is typical granite-pegmatite and contains no masses of pure quartz that are large enough to be of commercial value. The feldspar is cream-colored microcline, in most places finely intergrown with small amounts of albite. Muscovite occurs in crystals 3 to 5 inches across and from 2 to 3 inches thick, but is rendered worthless by the presence of ruling and wedge structure. The principal iron-bearing mineral is biotite [annite], which occurs in lath-shaped crystals 1 to 2 inches wide, and is very abundant in some parts of the pegmatite. Black tourmaline is rare. The ledge that is now being worked and a number of others on this property contain considerable amounts of feldspar of pottery grade.

The material is taken by tramway downhill for about half a mile to the mill, which is at the side of the railroad and also within a few rods of Connecticut River, so that shipments may be made by water if desired. The mill is equipped with a gyratory crusher, crushing rolls, rotary drier, and two tube mills, 18 by 6 feet, whose capacity is stated to be 30 tons in ten hours. It is the purpose of this company to use the better grade of material for pottery purposes and to crush the remainder for use as poultry grit and in the manufacture of ready roofing. Power is furnished by a gas engine and gas producer.


A few years later, A. S. Watts (1916) examined the chemistry and suitability of the ores for porcelain production. The Consolidated quarry was so described:

The dike has been opened along a northeast face, showing a width of about 50 feet. The composition of the dike is decidedly variable. In many places it is remarkably free from impurity and shows considerable masses of pure buff feldspar of the potash variety; in others it is very fine-grained pegmatite with much mica and small garnets. The gradation is so pronounced, however, that no difficulty in sorting would be experienced.

The east dike is a widely varying mixture of potash feldspar pegmatite and soda feldspar pegmatite. It is much smaller in extent than the west dike and shows a structure similar to the gem bearing dikes of Maine. Much cleavelandite is scattered through this dike, and black, pink, and green tourmaline are noted, although the tourmalines are all opaque and not of the gem quality.


Because the quarry was not active during World War II, the description done by Cameron et al (1954) was very limited and no map was made:

The pegmatites consist essentially of quartz, plagioclase, perthite, and muscovite, with accessory garnet, tourmaline, beryl and other minerals. Biotite [annite] is abundant in one of the quarries. Beryl occurs most commonly in pods, associated with coarse quartz, perthite, and muscovite. Tourmaline is present in some pods. The beryl crystals are as much as 12 inches long and 6 inches in diameter. The pods are small and widely scattered, so that the average beryl content of each pegmatite is low. In a quarry about 200 feet long, on the north slope of White Rocks just below the summit, beryl occurs also as crystals ¼ to 1 inch in diameter and as much as 1 inch long, sparsely scattered in a medium-grained matrix of quartz, plagioclase, muscovite, and accessory garnet and tourmaline. The average percentage of beryl in this material is very low.

None of the quarries revealed mineable amounts of book muscovite, which occurs only in the pod deposits.


When open to collecting, collectors frequented the quarry before it was filled, and the similar, small satellite quarry at its southern end after the main one was filled. Because it has lithium and rare-element-rich chemisty, this quarry (along with the smaller but similar Riverside Quarry on the same dike) produced the most species, and most of the preserved specimens, from the district.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


38 valid minerals. 1 erroneous literature entry.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Description: A component of the calc-silicate rocks in the Collins Hill Formation, which hosts the pegmatite.
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Bastin (1910); Ryerson (1972); Stugard (1958); Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Bastin (1910); Schooner (1958)
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Reference: Ryerson (1972); Schooner (1958)
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Reference: Henderson, William A., Jr. (1975): The Bertrandites of Connecticut. The Mineralogical Record, Vol. 6, No 3, pages 114-123.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Schairer (1931); Foye (1922); Cameron et al (1954); Ryerson (1972); Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Beryl var: Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Reference: Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Foye (1922)
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Schairer (1931); Harold Moritz collection
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Description: A component of the calc-silicate rocks in the Collins Hill Formation, which hosts the pegmatite.
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Schairer (1931); Foye (1922); Ryerson (1972); Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Ryerson (1972); Schooner (1958)
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Foye (1922); Cameron et al (1954)
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Description: A component of the calc-silicate rocks in the Collins Hill Formation, which hosts the pegmatite.
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Johannite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Description: "was attributed to some locality in Middletown...by C. U. Shephard, in 1850. In a recent communication to the author, Clifford Frondel of Harvard University said, 'The old reported occurrences of uranium sulfates are not valid'." Schooner (1958)
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Kyanite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Schooner (1958)
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Schairer (1931); Foye (1922); Ryerson (1972); Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Meta-autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Bastin (1910); Stugard (1958); Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
'Microlite Group'
Formula: A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Reference: Foye (1922); Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
'Monazite'
Reference: Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Schairer (1931); Bastin (1910); Cameron et al (1954); Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Muscovite var: Schernikite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Habit: parallel-growth fibers with rhombic cross-sections
Colour: pastel lavender
Description: Usually as parallel-fiber overgrowths on muscovite.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Description: In the Collins Hill Formation, which hosts the pegmatite.
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cameron et al (1954); Ryerson (1972); Schooner (1958)
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Samarskite-(Y)
Formula: YFe3+Nb2O8
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Bastin (1910); Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Ryerson (1972); Harold Moritz collection
'Tantalite'
Formula: (Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Description: Mistake for columbite-tantalite
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Schooner (1958)
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Former Bob Albanese collection
'Tourmaline var: Watermelon Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Former Bob Albanese collection
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: Foye (1922); Schooner (1958); Harold Moritz collection
Uranophane
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Vesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Description: A component of the calc-silicate rocks in the Collins Hill Formation, which hosts the pegmatite.
Reference: Schooner (1958)
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Foye (1922); Harold Moritz collection

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Columbite-(Fe)4.DB.35Fe2+Nb2O6
Ilmenite4.CB.05Fe2+TiO3
'Microlite Group'4.00.A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Samarskite-(Y)4.DB.25YFe3+Nb2O8
Uraninite4.DL.05UO2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Johannite ?7.EB.05Cu(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Autunite8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Meta-autunite8.EB.10Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Torbernite8.EB.05Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Annite9.EC.20KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Bertrandite9.BD.05Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Goshenite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Cookeite9.EC.55(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Grossular9.AD.25Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kyanite9.AF.15Al2(SiO4)O
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Schernikite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Uranophane9.AK.15Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
Vesuvianite9.BG.35Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Lepidolite'-
'Monazite'-
'Tantalite'-(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Watermelon Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ilmenite4.3.5.1Fe2+TiO3
Group 5 - OXIDES CONTAINING URANIUM OR THORIUM
AXO2·xH2O
Uraninite5.1.1.1UO2
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Samarskite-(Y)8.1.11.1YFe3+Nb2O8
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
'Microlite Group'8.2.2.1A2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
AB2O6
Columbite-(Fe)8.3.2.2Fe2+Nb2O6
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Johannite ?31.8.2.1Cu(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Meta-autunite40.2a.1.2Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
Torbernite40.2a.13.1Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Grossular51.4.3b.2Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Kyanite52.2.2c.1Al2(SiO4)O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 53 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions or Complex Cations
Insular SiO4 Groups and Other Anions of Complex Cations with (UO2)
Uranophane53.3.1.2Ca(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
Group 56 - SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups, With Additional O, OH, F and H2O
Si2O7 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] coordination
Bertrandite56.1.1.1Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Vesuvianite58.2.4.1Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Annite71.2.2b.3KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Cookeite71.4.1.2(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
Beryl
var: Goshenite
-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Lepidolite'-
'Monazite'-
Muscovite
var: Schernikite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2
'Tantalite'-(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Watermelon Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
H Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
H UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
H VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
H Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H JohanniteCu(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
LiLithium
Li Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
BeBeryllium
Be BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Tourmaline (var: Watermelon Tourmaline)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O UraniniteUO2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O QuartzSiO2
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
O IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
O UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
O VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
O Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O Tourmaline (var: Watermelon Tourmaline)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O JohanniteCu(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
NaSodium
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
AlAluminium
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si BertranditeBe4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si KyaniteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Si UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
Si VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Beryl (var: Goshenite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
P Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
SSulfur
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S JohanniteCu(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Schernikite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
Ca UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
Ca VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Ca Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
TiTitanium
Ti IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
MnManganese
Mn Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
FeIron
Fe AnniteKFe32+(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
Fe IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8
Fe Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Fe VesuvianiteCa19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(☐4)☐[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Cu JohanniteCu(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
YYttrium
Y Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
Nb Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8
Nb Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
TaTantalum
Ta Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-n
Ta Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3
UUranium
U UraniniteUO2
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
U TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
U UranophaneCa(UO2)2(SiO3OH)2•5H2O
U Meta-autuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 6-8H2O
U JohanniteCu(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2 · 8H2O

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Shepard, C. U. (1837), Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut. Hamlem, New Haven.
Bastin, Edson S. (1910), Economic Geology of the Feldspar Deposits of the United States. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 420.
Watts, A. S. (1916), The Feldspars of the New England and North Appalachian States. U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 92.
Foye, W. G. (1922), Mineral Localities in the Vicinity of Middletown, Connecticut. American Mineralogist: 7.
Rice, W. N. and Foye, W. G. (1927), Guide to the Geology of Middletown, Connecticut and Vicinity. Connecticut Geological & Natural History Survey Bulletin 41.
Schairer, J. F. (1931), Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51.
Rocks & Minerals (1941): 16: 279.
Cameron, E. N., D. M. Larrabee, A. N. McNair, J. J. Page, G. W. Stewart, and V. E. Shainin (1954), Pegmatite investigations 1942-45 New England. U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 255.
Schooner, Richard. (1958), The mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam area in Connecticut (with a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). East Hampton and Branford, Conn.: Richard Schooner, Ralph Lieser, and Howard Pate.
Stugard, Frederick. (1958), Pegmatites of the Middletown Area, Connecticut. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1042-Q, U. S. Government Printing Office.
Jones, Robert W. (1960), Luminescent Minerals of Connecticut. Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Bannerman, H. W., S. S. Quarrier, and R. Schooner. (1968), Mineral deposits of the central Connecticut pegmatite district, field trip F-6. In Guidebook for fieldtrips in Connecticut, 1-7. New England Intercollegiate Geological Conference, 60th annual meeting, Yale University, New Haven, Conn., 25-27 Oct. 1968.
Eaton and Rosenfeld. (1972), The Bedrock Geology of the Middle Haddam Quadrangle, Connecticut. U. S. Geological Survey open file report.
Ryerson, Kathleen H. (1972), Rock Hound’s Guide to Connecticut. Pequot Press, Stonington.
London, David. (1985), Pegmatites of the Middletown District, Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Department of Environmental Protection, Guidebook No. 6: 509-533.
Altamura, Robert J. (1987), Bedrock Mines and Quarries of Connecticut. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey Natural Resources Atlas Series Map, 1:125,000 scale, with 41-p. booklet.
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995), Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 403.

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