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Candoglia marble quarries, Candoglia, Mergozzo, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province, Piedmont, Italyi
Regional Level Types
Candoglia marble quarriesGroup of Quarries
Candoglia- not defined -
MergozzoCommune
Verbano-Cusio-Ossola ProvinceProvince
PiedmontRegion
ItalyCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
45° 58' 54'' North , 8° 25' 32'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Group of Quarries
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Candoglia210 (2016)0.7km
Albo I229 (2014)0.7km
Ornavasso3,056 (2014)1.7km
Mergozzo1,511 (2014)3.1km
Gabbio257 (2014)3.7km
Name(s) in local language(s):
Cave di marmo di Candoglia, Candoglia, Mergozzo, Val d'Ossola, Provincia del Verbano-Cusio-Ossola, Piemonte, Italia


Lenses of calcite and calc-silicate marbles, interlayered within the kinzigites of the Ivrea-Verbano Zone, with a subvertical attitude and small thickness (8-30 m). Structural studies evidenced isoclinal folds, with a subvertical axial plane parallel to the main foliation, which connect the different small lenses.

The quarries of Candoglia were firstly opened near the village, but later on, their location moved up to higher levels. Now there are five recognisable extraction sites: Madre quarry (Cava Madre), active underground quarry at an elevation of 560 m a.s.l.; Carrettone quarry (Cava Carrettone), abandoned open pit quarry; Cornovo West quarry (Cava Cornovo Ovest), abandoned open pit quarry; Cornovo East quarry (Cava Cornovo Est), active open pit quarry at 860 m a.s.l.; Mergozzoni quarry (Cava Mergozzoni or Cava dei Mergozzoni), abandoned open pit quarry at 950 m a.s.l.

Since 1387 the Candoglia marble quarries belong to the "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo" of Milan and now the produced stone (about 1000 t/year) is only used for the restoration of the Cathedral (Ferrari da Passano, 2000). The Candoglia marble was also used in the past as facing stone in a few other monuments such as Certosa in Pavia, Cappella Colleoni in Bergamo, and San Petronio Cathedral in Bologna. Formerly, the Romans used it for columns and altars.

The medium- to coarse-grained Candoglia marble mainly shows a pink colour with frequent dark green layers, due to the presence of diopside and tremolite; other subordinate minerals are quartz, epidote, sulphides, Ba-feldspars, baryte, and rare phlogopite. The varieties of Candoglia marble (pink, white, grey, and veined) are deeply affected by the chromatic, textural, and compositional features.

Madre quarry (Cava Madre) is the type locality for taramellite (Tacconi, 1908 a, b; 1911) and paracelsian (Tacconi, 1905; 1911). Mergozzoni quarry (Cava Mergozzoni or Cava dei Mergozzoni) is the type locality for wenkite (Papageorgakis, 1959; 1961; 1962).

The Ba silicate found at the contact between calciphyres and amphibolite and described as "calciocelsian" by Peyronel Pagliani (1958) is ascribable to armenite. The presence of armenite, in the form of prismatic crystals, has been recently confirmed (Gentile et al., 2017).

Historical note: since 24 October 1387 the Candoglia marble quarries belong to the "Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo" of Milan, to which the Duke of Milan Gian Galeazzo Visconti gave the right to exploit for free the Candoglia marble and the woods located in Grande Valley (Val Grande), in the area between Cima Corte Lorenzo and Alpe Ompio as far as the course of Rio di Val Grande. The “Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo” is still today the concessionaire of this wooded territory, now included in the Val Grande National Park, whose confines are marked by boundary stones with the symbol of two crossed hammers. A large amount of timber was necessary for moving the marble blocks inside the quarries and from the quarries to the bank of Toce River, where they were loaded onto wooden barges, 15-18 m long. The marble blocks sailed to Milan along the Toce River (navigable until the beginning of the 20th century), Lake Maggiore, Ticino River, and Naviglio Grande canal. Until 1439 the barges reached the Porta Ticinese dock (Darsena di Porta Ticinese) near the church of Sant’Eustorgio. Then, thanks to a new system of two locks to control the water level (known as Conca di Viarenna or Conca di Via Arena) designed by Ridolfo “Aristotele” Fioravanti and Filippino (Filippo) degli Organi, it was possible to connect the dock near Sant’Eustorgio to the inner canal system (Fossa Interna) and to transport the stones to Laghetto dell'Ospedale (a small basin filled in during 1857 and replaced by the modern-day Via Laghetto and Piazza Santo Stefano) near the Cathedral workshop. As the stones for the construction of the Cathedral were exempted from duties and tolls, the barges were marked with the letters “AUF” (Ad Usum Fabricae). This acronym originated the Milanese dialect expression “a uf” (sometimes used in the Italianised form “a ufo” or “a uffa”), which means “gratis, for free, free of charge”.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


26 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: ; American Mineralogist, Volume 69, pages 358-373, 1984
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Armenite
Formula: BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Reference: Peyronel Pagliani, G. (1958): I silicati di bario del marmo di Candoglia (Ossola). Rendiconti della Società Mineralogica Italiana, 14, 280-300; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.; Gentile, P., Cavallo, A., Zorzi, F. (2017): Armenite della Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo, Candoglia di Mergozzo (VB). Novità di mineralogia sistematica italiana. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 51, 3 (3-2017), 188.
'Axinite Group'
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo; Camisasca O. (1941): Il marmo di Candoglia ed i suoi minerali. Atti Soc. It. Sci. Nat., 80, (2), 199-222.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: ; American Mineralogist, Volume 69, pages 358-373, 1984
Celsian
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Eckermannite ?
Formula: NaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Reference: Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Mica Group'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Microcline var: Hyalophane
Formula: (K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Paracelsian (TL)
Formula: Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Type Locality:
Reference: Tacconi, E. (1905): Di un silicato di alluminio e bario dei calcefiri di Candoglia in valle del Toce. Rendiconti del Regio Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere, Serie II, 38, 636-643.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Scapolite'
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Taramellite (TL)
Formula: Ba4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Type Locality:
Reference: Tacconi, E. (1908): Taramellite, nuovo silicato di ferro e bario. Rendiconti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, Serie V, 18, 810-814; Tacconi, E. (1908): Ueber Taramellit, ein neues Mineral. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 1908, 506-508; Gramaccioli, C.M. (1975): Minerali alpini e prealpini. Edizioni Atlas Bergamo.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo
Wenkite (TL)
Formula: (Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Papageorgakis, J. (1959): Ein neues Bariummineral des Marmors von Candoglia in der unteren Val d’Ossola. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 39, 333-335; Papageorgakis, J. (1962): Wenkit, ein neues Mineral von Candoglia. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 42, 269-274; AmMin 48:213 (1963); Gramaccioli, C.M. (1975): Minerali alpini e prealpini. Istituto Italiano Edizioni Atlas, Bergamo, 2 vol., 472 pp.; Mattioli, V. (1979): Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pp.; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Albertini, C., Gentile, P., Nibbio, F., Panighetti, A., Ponti, C. (2017): Wenkite. Un raro minerale delle cave di Candoglia, Mergozzo (Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 51, 3 (3-2017), 190-196.
Witherite
Formula: BaCO3
Reference: ; American Mineralogist, Volume 69, pages 358-373, 1984
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: C.M. Gramaccioli (1975)-Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Witherite5.AB.15BaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Aegirine9.DA.25NaFe3+Si2O6
Armenite9.CM.05BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Celsian9.FA.30Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Diopside9.DA.15CaMgSi2O6
Eckermannite ?9.DE.25NaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Forsterite9.AC.05Mg2SiO4
Microcline
var: Hyalophane
9.FA.30(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Paracelsian (TL)9.FA.40Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Phlogopite9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Taramellite (TL)9.CE.20Ba4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Wenkite (TL)9.GD.25(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Axinite Group'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Mica Group'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Witherite14.1.3.2BaCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Forsterite51.3.1.2Mg2SiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 63 - CYCLOSILICATES Condensed Rings
Condensed Rings (Milarite - Osumilite group)
Armenite63.2.1b.1BaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Group 64 - CYCLOSILICATES Rings with Other Anions and Insular Silicate Groups
Rings with Other Anions and Insular Silicate Groups: 4-membered rings with [Si2O7] dimers
Taramellite (TL)64.3.1.1Ba4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Aegirine65.1.3c.2NaFe3+Si2O6
Diopside65.1.3a.1CaMgSi2O6
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Eckermannite ?66.1.3c.6NaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Celsian76.1.1.4Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Microcline
var: Hyalophane
76.1.1.3(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Paracelsian (TL)76.1.5.1Ba(Al2Si2O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Wenkite (TL)76.2.5.16(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Amphibole Supergroup'-AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Axinite Group'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Mica Group'-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Scapolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
H ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
BBoron
B TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C WitheriteBaCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
O Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
O TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
O CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
O ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
O Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
O BaryteBaSO4
O DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
O AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O ForsteriteMg2SiO4
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O WitheriteBaCO3
O CalciteCaCO3
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
FFluorine
F Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
NaSodium
Na Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
Na AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Na EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
MgMagnesium
Mg TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Mg DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Al Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
Al CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Al ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Al Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Si Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
Si TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Si CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Si ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Si Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Si DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Si AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si ForsteriteMg2SiO4
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
S BaryteBaSO4
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S PyriteFeS2
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Cl Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
K Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
Ca ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Ca DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
TiTitanium
Ti TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Ti Amphibole SupergroupAX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Ti RutileTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Fe AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
BaBarium
Ba ParacelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Ba Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2O
Ba TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2Clx
Ba CelsianBa(Al2Si2O8)
Ba ArmeniteBaCa2Al6Si9O30 · 2H2O
Ba Microcline (var: Hyalophane)(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Ba BaryteBaSO4
Ba WitheriteBaCO3

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Barelli, V. (1835) Cenni di statistica mineralogica degli Stati di S.M. il Re di Sardegna, ovvero Catalogo ragionato della Raccolta formatasi presso l'Azienda Generale dell'Interno. Tipografia Giuseppe Fodratti, Torino, 686 pages.
Jervis, G. (1873) I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 1: Regioni delle Alpi. Ed. Loescher, Torino, 410 pages.
Tacconi, E. (1905) Di un silicato di alluminio e bario dei calcefiri di Candoglia in valle del Toce. Rendiconti del Reale Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere, serie 2, 38, 636-643.
Tacconi, E. (1908) Taramellite, nuovo silicato di ferro e bario. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, serie 5, Rendiconti, Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali, 18, 810-814.
Tacconi, E. (1908) Ueber Taramellit, ein neues Mineral. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 506-508.
Tacconi, E. (1911) La massa calcarea ed i calcefiri di Candoglia, in Valle del Toce. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali, 50, 1, 55-88 and 2-3, 89-94.
Codara, G., Battaini, C. (1939) Itinerari mineralogici. I minerali di Candoglia. 1°) Località Vallorba. 2°) Località Cava Madre, Carrettone, Cornovo, Cava del Duomo di Milano. Natura, 30, 4, 196-205.
Camisasca, O. (1941) Il marmo di Candoglia ed i suoi minerali. Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali, 80, 2, 199-222.
Mazzi, F. (1957) Riesame della taramellite. Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, serie A, 64, 237-245.
Peyronel Pagliani, G. (1958) I silicati di bario del marmo di Candoglia (Ossola). Rendiconti della Società Mineralogica Italiana, 14, 280-300.
Papageorgakis, J. (1959) Ein neues Bariummineral des Marmors von Candoglia in der unteren Val d’Ossola. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 39, 333-335.
Papageorgakis, J. (1961) Marmore und Kalksilkatfelse der Zone Ivrea-Verbano zwischen Ascona und Candoglia. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 41, 157-254.
Papageorgakis, J. (1962) Wenkit, ein neues Mineral von Candoglia. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen, 42, 269-274.
Del Caldo, A., Moro, C., Gramaccioli, C.M., Boscardin, M. (1973) Guida ai minerali. Fratelli Fabbri Editori, Milano, 208 pages.
De Michele, V. (1974) Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol., 408 pages.
Gramaccioli, C.M. (1975) Minerali alpini e prealpini. Istituto Italiano Edizioni Atlas, Bergamo, 2 vol., 472 pages.
Mazzi, F., Rossi, G. (1978) Nuovi dati chimici e strutturali sulla taramellite. Rendiconti della Società Italiana di Mineralogia e Petrologia, 34, 1, 205-206.
Mattioli, V. (1979) Minerali Ossolani. Ed. Arti Grafiche Medesi, Milano, 268 pages.
Mazzi, F., Rossi, G. (1980) The crystal structure of taramellite. American Mineralogist, 65, 123-128.
Alfors, J.T., Pabst, A. (1984) Titanian taramellites in western North America. American Mineralogist, 69, 358-373.
Ferrari da Passano, C. (2000) La Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo di Milano. “Quarry-Laboratory-Monument” International Congress, Pavia 2000, Proceedings, Vol. 1, 23-34.
Cavallo, A., Bigioggero, B., Colombo, A., Tunesi, A. (2004) The Verbano Cusio Ossola province: a land of quarries in northern Italy (Piedmont). Periodico di Mineralogia, 73, (special issue 3), 197-210.
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007) Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pages.
Brack, P., Ulmer, P., Schmid, S.M. (with a contribution by) (2010) A crustal-scale magmatic system from the Earth's mantle to the Permian surface - Field trip to the area of lower Valsesia and Val d’Ossola (Massiccio dei Laghi, Southern Alps, Northern Italy). Swiss Bulletin für angewandte Geologie, 15, 2, 3-21.
Albertini, C., Gentile, P., Nibbio, F., Panighetti, A., Ponti, C. (2017) Wenkite. Un raro minerale delle cave di Candoglia, Mergozzo (Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 51, 3 (3-2017), 190-196.
Gentile, P., Cavallo, A., Zorzi, F. (2017) Armenite della Veneranda Fabbrica del Duomo, Candoglia di Mergozzo (VB). Novità di mineralogia sistematica italiana. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 51, 3 (3-2017), 188.

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