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Bralorne Mine, Bridge River area, Lillooet Mining Division, British Columbia, Canadai
Regional Level Types
Bralorne MineMine
Bridge River areaArea
Lillooet Mining DivisionDivision
British ColumbiaProvince
CanadaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
50° 47' 0'' North , 122° 50' 16'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:


Most of the claims in the Bralorne-Pioneer mine camp were staked in 1897. The Pioneer mine began in 1900 as a one-man operation, when F. W. Kinder single-handedly mined and processed the ore at a rate of 400-500 pounds per day. He continued his operation, making a comfortable living, for eleven years before selling the property. The mine became a major producer of gold when Dave Sloan, a mining engineer, came on board as managing director in 1924. Within four years the recovery of gold had reached more than $100,000 of bullion per year (Cairnes 1937).
Gold and sulfide mineralization (pyrite, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and tetrahedrite) occurs in epigenetic mesothermal quartz-carbonate veins hosted in serpentinite and diorite.
Most surviving specimen material consists of “sponge” gold frozen in quartz matrix, some in sulfide matrix. Good representative specimens of this type reside in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum, the Provincial Museum of Alberta, and the University of British Columbia. The Braelorne mine closed in 1971. A number of large specimens were rediscovered in an office filing cabinet after a company take-over in the late 1980s. In 1990 Braelorne Resources sold these specimens of sponge gold in quartz to Rod Tyson and Frank Melanson. They etched them and produced 15 specimens ranging from 4x3 cm to 12 x 20 cm (Robinson and King 1990).
Well-crystallized gold is reported to have been encountered in carbonate quartz veins during operations in the 1930s and 1940s (Rod Tyson, pers. comm., 2005). One significant surviving specimen of this era is in the collection of the Canadian Museum of Nature. Another was sold at a Sotheby’s auction in Toronto in 1988. The following is from the Sotheby’s auction catalog 84 (1988):
"A Spectacular Gold Specimen, of self-supporting dendritic and platy gold veinlets with arsenopyrite crystals etched from a calcite vein in a calcite and grey rock matrix, the specimen mounted in plaster and housed within a wood and glass display case, length 5 in. (12.7 cm.), height 2 3A in. (7.0 cm.), width 4 in. (10.2 cm.).
This gold specimen originates from the Pioneer Gold Mines property near Lillooet, located approximately 100 miles north of Vancouver. It was acquired in the 1930’s by Colonel J.V.N. Spencer, the proprietor of the mine.
Provenance: Private Collection, British Columbia."

A specimen exhibiting reasonably developed gold micro-crystals in vugs in massive quartz is also known from the Coronation mine, which was eventually incorporated into the operations of the Bralorne mine. The gold crystals are rounded and complex, appearing to exhibit a highly modified tetrahexahedral form.


Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


16 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353
Muscovite var: Fuchsite
Formula: K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: Richard Gunter
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Reference: Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353; Mauthier, M. and C. A. Francis (2006) Gold Crystal Localities of British Columbia, Canada. Rocks & Minerals 81:14-22

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Arsenopyrite2.EB.20FeAsS
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Siderite5.AB.05FeCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Scheelite7.GA.05Ca(WO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Fuchsite9.EC.15K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Arsenopyrite2.12.4.1FeAsS
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Scheelite48.1.2.1Ca(WO4)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
Muscovite
var: Fuchsite
-K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
var: Sericite-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C SideriteFeCO3
OOxygen
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O SideriteFeCO3
O ScheeliteCa(WO4)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
AlAluminium
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SSulfur
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ArsenopyriteFeAsS
S SphaleriteZnS
S GalenaPbS
S TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
S StibniteSb2S3
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca ScheeliteCa(WO4)
CrChromium
Cr Muscovite (var: Fuchsite)K(Al,Cr)3Si3O10(OH)2
FeIron
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe ArsenopyriteFeAsS
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe SideriteFeCO3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As ArsenopyriteFeAsS
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6(Cu4X2)Sb4S13
Sb StibniteSb2S3
WTungsten
W ScheeliteCa(WO4)
AuGold
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Robinson, G. W. and V. T. King. (1990): What’s new in minerals. Mineralogical Record 21 (5): 485-86.
Econ Geol (1991) 86:318-353

Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

North America
North America PlateTectonic Plate

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