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Candelaria Copper mining complex, Punta del Cobre District, Copiapó Province, Atacama Region, Chile

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 27° 31' 35'' South , 70° 17' 40'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): -27.52651,-70.29463
GeoHash:G#: 67n52kvn2
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:BWk : Cold desert climate
Name(s) in local language(s):Mina Candelaria


Iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposit, occurring within the contact metamorphic aureole of a granodioritic batholith, which is exposed about 1 km west of the deposit. Candelaria is the largest deposit in the Punta del Cobre district, with mineable reserves of some 400 million tons grading at 1.0% Cu, 0.20 g/t Au, and 4.5 g/t Ag.

The deposit was discovered in the 1990s during geophysical exploration including an induced polarisation survey. Small mines had been sporadically operating in the area from the 1930s until the early 1980s, yielding a small amount of gold-bearing copper oxide ore.

The mineralization assemblage at the Candelaria Mine consists of chalcopyrite, magnetite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite. Biotite, calc-silicate minerals, and potassium feldspar constitute the gangue minerals. Pervasive potassic alteration is associated with the mineralization.

Chalcopyrite is the only primary copper sulphide present in the Santos mine. Additionally to copper mineralization, there are economic values of gold. Most frequent gangue minerals are pyrite, magnetite, actinolite, k-feldspar, chlorite, biotite and hematite.

Ore and gangue mineralogy at the Alcaparrosa mine consists of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite, with trace pyrrhotite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite.

The open-pit mine operates with an overall mining rate of approximately 235,000 tonnes per day including 66,000 tonnes per day of ore sent to the Candelaria concentrator. The average grade of the ore mined from the open pit over the remaining life of mine is 0.57% copper while stockpiled work in progress material averages 0.36% copper.

The Candelaria Norte underground mine produces 6,000 tonnes per day. The Alcaparrosa underground mine produces 4,000 tonnes per day of ore and Santos produces 3,750 tonnes per day. The mining method in all three underground mines is sublevel open stoping.
An old Ag mine located in the upper part of the Chañarcillo district.

The Candelaria Copper mining complex comprises 249 mining exploitation concessions (approximately 5,855 hectares) and 65 mining exploration concessions (approximately 6,580 hectares).

Co-ordinates are for the Candelaria processing plant.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

21 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 154-167.
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Marschik, R., and Söllner, F. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 785-801.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Marschik, R., and Söllner, F. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 785-801.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Reference: Marschik, R., and Söllner, F. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 785-801.
'Biotite'
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Marschik, R., Singer, B.S., Munizaga, F., Tassinari, C., Moritz, R., and Fontboté, L. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 531-546.; Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 154-167.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Taylor, G.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 377-384.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Reference: Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 154-167.
Chlorargyrite var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
Formula: Ag(Cl,Br)
Reference: Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 154-167.
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Reference:  ;  
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Oyarzun, R., Rodríguez, M., Pincheira, M., Doblas, M., and Helle, S. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 799-801.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Marschik, R., and Söllner, F. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 785-801.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
'commodity:Gold'
Formula: Au
Reference:  
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Marschik, R., Singer, B.S., Munizaga, F., Tassinari, C., Moritz, R., and Fontboté, L. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 531-546.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 154-167.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Taylor, G.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 377-384.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Taylor, G.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 377-384.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Taylor, G.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 377-384.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Taylor, G.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 377-384.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Marschik, R., Singer, B.S., Munizaga, F., Tassinari, C., Moritz, R., and Fontboté, L. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 531-546.
'Scapolite'
Reference: Marschik, R., and Söllner, F. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 785-801.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Reference: Henwood, W.J. (1871): Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8(1), 154-167.
'commodity:Silver'
Formula: Ag
Reference:  
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Taylor, G.K. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 377-384.
Stringhamite
Formula: CaCu(SiO4) · H2O

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Electrum1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Silver1.AA.05Ag
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Acanthite'2.BA.35Ag2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Chlorargyrite3.AA.15AgCl
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite3.AA.15Ag(Cl,Br)
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 9 - Silicates
'Actinolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite'9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
'Almandine'9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
'Andradite'9.AD.25Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Hedenbergite9.DA.15CaFe2+Si2O6
Stringhamite9.AE.35CaCu(SiO4) · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
Hornblende-
K Feldspar-
Limonite-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Scapolite-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Silver1.1.1.2Ag
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Chlorargyrite9.1.4.1AgCl
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andradite51.4.3b.1Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Hedenbergite65.1.3a.2CaFe2+Si2O6
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 78 - Unclassified Silicates
Miscellaneous
Stringhamite78.1.9.1CaCu(SiO4) · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Biotite'-
Chlorargyrite
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
-Ag(Cl,Br)
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
'Hornblende'-
'K Feldspar'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Scapolite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H StringhamiteCaCu(SiO4) · H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
O CalciteCaCO3
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
O HematiteFe2O3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O QuartzSiO2
O StringhamiteCaCu(SiO4) · H2O
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
SiSilicon
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Si QuartzSiO2
Si StringhamiteCaCu(SiO4) · H2O
SSulfur
S AcanthiteAg2S
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S SphaleriteZnS
ClChlorine
Cl Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Cl ChlorargyriteAgCl
CaCalcium
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Ca StringhamiteCaCu(SiO4) · H2O
FeIron
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe AndraditeCa3Fe23+(SiO4)3
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HedenbergiteCaFe2+Si2O6
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu StringhamiteCaCu(SiO4) · H2O
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
BrBromine
Br Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag Chlorargyrite (var: Bromian Chlorargyrite)Ag(Cl,Br)
Ag ChlorargyriteAgCl
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
Ag SilverAg
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cretaceous - Jurassic
66 - 201.3 Ma



ID: 3189103
Mesozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mesozoic (66 - 201.3 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Marschik, R., Singer, B.S., Munizaga, F., Tassinari, C., Moritz, R., and Fontboté, L. (1997) Age of Cu-(Fe)-Au mineralization and thermal evolution of the Punta del Cobre district, Chile. Mineralium Deposita 32, 531-546.
Oyarzun, R., Rodríguez, M., Pincheira, M., Doblas, M., and Helle, S. (1999) Age of Cu-(Fe)-Au mineralization and thermal evolution of the Punta del Cobre district, Chile. Mineralium Deposita 34, 799-801.
Taylor, G.K. (2000) Palaeomagnetism applied to magnetic anomaly interpretation: a new twist to the search for mineralisation in northern Chile. Mineralium Deposita 35, 377-384.
Marschik, R. and Fontboté, L. (2001) The Candelaria-Punta del Cobre iron oxide Cu-Au(-Zn-Ag) deposits, Chile. Economic Geology, 96, 1799-1826.
Marschik, R., Chiaradia, M., and Fontboté, L. (2003) Implications of Pb isotope signatures of rocks and iron oxide Cu-Au ores in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district, Chile. Mineralium Deposita, 38, 900-912.
Marschik, R. and Söllner, F. (2006) Early Cretaceous U–Pb zircon ages for the Copiapó plutonic complex and implications for the IOCG mineralization at Candelaria, Atacama Region, Chile. Mineralium Deposita 41, 785-801.
Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007) Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
Moesta, F.A. (1870) Ueber das Vorkommen der Chlor-, Brom- und Jodverbindungen des Silbers in der Natur - Ein Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Geologischen und Bergbaulichen Verhältnisse von Nordchile. Verlag von Oscar Eberhardt's Universitätsbuchhandlung (Marburg), 47 pages.
Henwood, W.J. (1871) Observations on Metalliferous Deposits: On the Mining District of Chañarcillo in Chili. Transactions of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall 8:1, 69-153.

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