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Cryo-Genie Mine (Cindy B-Cryogenie claim; Lost Valley Truck Trail prospect), Warner Springs, Warner Springs Mining District, San Diego County, California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Cryo-Genie Mine (Cindy B-Cryogenie claim; Lost Valley Truck Trail prospect)Mine
Warner SpringsGroup of Springs
Warner Springs Mining DistrictMining District
San Diego CountyCounty
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
33° 18' 43'' North , 116° 38' 20'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Borrego Springs3,429 (2014)25.3km
Aguanga1,128 (2011)25.5km
Julian1,502 (2011)26.2km
Anza3,014 (2011)27.2km
Alpine Village146 (2006)36.3km


Setting:
The Cryo-Genie mine is located in the N½ Sec. 14, T10S, R3E, SBM, approximately 2 miles north-northwest of Warner Springs, and several hundred feet east of Lost Valley road.

Geology:
The deposit consists of a granite pegmatite dike, enclosed in hybrid rocks, which is exposed just southwest of the crest of a small hill. The dike strikes northward, dips about 30 degrees west, is about 10 feet thick, and can be traced laterally for at least 200 feet. The dike can be divided into 3 zones: (1) a lower zone, about 4 to 5 feet thick, which is chiefly graphic granite; (2) a core, about 1 ft. thick, which is composed of quartz, albite (including variety cleavelandite), muscovite, lepidolite, tourmaline, garnet, and allanite; and (3) an upper zone, 4 to 5 feet thick, which is medium- to coarse-grained graphic granite with muscovite, and black tourmaline crystals as long as 9 inches. The tourmaline crystals of the core commonly range in color from solid black to crystals with black cores and grass green exteriors. Weber also noted in 1958 that core zone produced tourmalines which were pale blue, pale pink, and colorless crystals. These pale crystals were described as thin and averaged less than 1/2 inch to 1 inch in length, with the smallest crystals being gemmy. The discovery in 2001 proved that these smaller crystals in the core zone were exposed along the outer margins of much larger mineralization further down dip. The remarkable 1.8 x 1.5 x 0.9-meter pocket yielded bright pink tourmaline crystals to 25 cm long and 10 cm across.

History:
A miarolitic tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite located near the town of Warner Springs in northeastern San Diego County. First referenced to as the Lost Valley Truck Trail prospect in 1958, the deposit was probably worked during the 1910s or 1920s when it was explored by shallow cuts and trenches along the outcrop. Periodic hand work was performed by hobbyists and amateur collectors during the 1960s. The current name was bestowed by Bart Cannon, who held the claim during the 1970s and 1980s. The mine was acquired in the late 1980s by current owner Dana Gochenhour, who along with the assistance of mine engineer Jim Clanin, began underground development of the site in 2001. A major discovery of pink elbaite was made in the spring of 2001, dubbed the B.A.T. or BAT pocket, which is an abbreviation or acronym meaning 'Big Ass Tourmaline' pocket. Another large tourmaline discovery was made in September of 2002, and a major beryl pocket was discovered in 2003.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


24 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Min.Rec.: 33(5): 363-407.
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Weber, F. H. (1963a), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: 102, 106; illus., maps; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 364; Rocks & Minerals (2003) May-June.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: Occurs in pegmatite core,.
Reference: Weber, F. H. (1963a), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: 106; illus., maps; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 431; Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003.
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Min.Rec.: 33(5): 363-407. ; http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/Special/Pig/PIG_articles/Cryo_Genie_Rpt9.pdf; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Fluorescence: bright yellow
Reference: Min.Rec.: 33(5): 363-407. Min News 20:2 p8 ; http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/Special/Pig/PIG_articles/Cryo_Genie_Rpt9.pdf; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: Mineralogical Record, v. 33, n. 5, pp. 363-407.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Robert Lavinsky specimen; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003 ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Weber, F. H. (1963a), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: 106; illus., maps; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 504; Mineralogical Record: 33(5) (2002): 363-407. ; http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/Special/Pig/PIG_articles/Cryo_Genie_Rpt9.pdf; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003
'Feldspar Group var: Perthite'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003 ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Fluornatromicrolite
Formula: (Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Reference: Timothy Sherburn collection
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 106; illus., maps.; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Herderite
Formula: CaBePO4(F,OH)
Reference: Kampf, A. R., et al (2003), Tourmaline Discovery at the Cryo-Genie Mine, San Diego County, California, Rocks & Minerals 78(3), 156-168.
Hydroxylherderite ?
Formula: CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Reference: Van King (2009)
'Indicolite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 106; illus., maps.
'Lepidolite'
Reference: Weber, F. H. (1963a), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: 106; illus., maps; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 431; Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003.
Löllingite
Formula: FeAs2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003 ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Min.Rec.: 33(5): 363-407.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003
Pääkkönenite
Formula: Sb2AsS2
Reference: Min News 20:2 p4; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Pollucite
Formula: (Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Min.Rec.: 33(5): 363-407. ; http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/Special/Pig/PIG_articles/Cryo_Genie_Rpt9.pdf
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Weber, F. H. (1963a), Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: 106; illus., maps; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 504; Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003 .; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Scorodite
Formula: Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Habit: Gem spodumene lathe displaying trichroism.
Colour: Pink
Description: Slender crystal of gem quality approximately 1.5 inches long, originally misidentified by the mine owner as pale pink tourmaline, as it had not been previously discovered or thought to occur in the deposit.
Reference: Larson, W. F. (2011), Personal collection of William F. Larson. On display at the Collector in Fallbrook, California.
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Habit: Gem spodumene lathe displaying trichroism.
Colour: Pink
Description: Slender crystal of gem quality approximately 1.5 inches long, originally misidentified by the mine owner as pale pink tourmaline, as it had not been previously discovered or thought to occur in the deposit.
Reference: Larson, W. F. (2011), Personal collection of William F. Larson. On display at the Collector in Fallbrook, California.
Stibiotantalite
Formula: Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003 ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
Tapiolite-(Fe)
Formula: (Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003 ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 106; illus., maps.
'Tourmaline var: Achroite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 106; illus., maps.
'Tourmaline var: Rubellite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 106; illus., maps.
'Tourmaline var: Verdelite'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 106; illus., maps.
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Löllingite2.EB.15aFeAs2
Pääkkönenite2.DB.05Sb2AsS2
Stibnite2.DB.05Sb2S3
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Columbite-(Fe)4.DB.35Fe2+Nb2O6
Fluornatromicrolite4.DH.15(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Stibiotantalite4.DE.30Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Tapiolite-(Fe)4.DB.10(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Fluorapatite8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
Herderite8.BA.10CaBePO4(F,OH)
Hydroxylherderite ?8.BA.10CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
Scorodite8.CD.10Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Allanite-(Ce)9.BG.05b{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Cookeite9.EC.55(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Pollucite9.GB.05(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Lepidolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Achroite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Pääkkönenite2.11.5.1Sb2AsS2
Stibnite2.11.2.1Sb2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Löllingite2.12.2.9FeAs2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
ABO4
Stibiotantalite8.1.6.2Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
AB2O6
Columbite-(Fe)8.3.2.2Fe2+Nb2O6
Tapiolite-(Fe)8.3.1.1(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Scorodite40.4.1.3Fe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Herderite41.5.4.1CaBePO4(F,OH)
Hydroxylherderite ?41.5.4.2CaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Allanite-(Ce)58.2.1a.1{CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Cookeite71.4.1.2(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Pollucite77.1.1.2(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'-
'Amblygonite-Montebrasite Series'-
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Feldspar Group'-
'var: Perthite'-
Fluornatromicrolite-(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Indicolite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Lepidolite'-
Spodumene
var: Kunzite
-LiAlSi2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Achroite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Rubellite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'var: Verdelite'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
H Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
H HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
LiLithium
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
Be HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
BBoron
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Tourmaline (var: Rubellite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B Tourmaline (var: Verdelite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Tourmaline (var: Achroite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O QuartzSiO2
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O CassiteriteSnO2
O Tourmaline (var: Rubellite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O IndicoliteA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
O StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
O HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
O ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
O Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
O Tourmaline (var: Verdelite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Tourmaline (var: Achroite)A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
F Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
NaSodium
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Na Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
MgMagnesium
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
P HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
SSulfur
S PääkköneniteSb2AsS2
S StibniteSb2S3
KPotassium
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
CaCalcium
Ca Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca HerderiteCaBePO4(F,OH)
Ca HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)
FeIron
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
Fe LöllingiteFeAs2
Fe ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Fe Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
AsArsenic
As PääkköneniteSb2AsS2
As LöllingiteFeAs2
As ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
NbNiobium
Nb Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
SbAntimony
Sb PääkköneniteSb2AsS2
Sb StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
Sb StibniteSb2S3
CsCaesium
Cs Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
CeCerium
Ce Allanite-(Ce){CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
TaTantalum
Ta StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4
Ta Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6
Ta Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F
BiBismuth
Bi Fluornatromicrolite(Na1.5Bi0.5)Ta2O6F

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Schaller, W. T. (1904), The tourmaline localities of S California. Science 19, p. 266–268.
Sterrett, D. B. (1904), Tourmaline from San Diego County, California. American Journal of Science, Vol.17, p. 459–465.
Sterrett, D. B. (1907), Precious stones. Mineral Resources U.S., 1906. Department of Interior, US Geol. Survey, Gov. Printing Office, Washington; p. 1213; p. 1239–1941.
Schaller, W. T. (1916), Mineral Resources of the US, Gems and Precious Stones, 1915, Part II. Dep. Interior, Geol. Survey: p. 846.
Schaller, W. T. (1919), Gems & Precious Stones. Mineral Resources U.S., 1916, Part II - Nonmetals. Dep. Interior, US Geol. Survey, Governm. Printing Office, Washington; p. 888–889.
Tucker, W. B., Reed, C. H. (1939), Los Angeles Field District - Mineral Resources of San Diego County. California Journal of Mines and Geology, quarterly chapter of the State Mineralogist Report Vol 35, p. 37–40.
Jahns, R. H. (1948), Gem deposits of southern California. Gems and Gemology, Vol. 6, No. 1, p. 6–30.
Weber, F. H. (1963a), Mines and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: 102, 106; illus., maps.
Pourade, R. F. (1964), The History of San Diego, Chapter Three: Who Could Have Guessed These Stones Were Gems?
Sinkankas, J. (1979), Turmalinreiches Südkalifornien. In: Lapis, Vol. 4, No.1, p.33-37.
Johnston, J. (1980?), An Introduction and History of Tourmaline. In: Gemmology, Canada, Special Issue.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 364, 431, 486, 504.
London, D. (1986), Formation of tourmalin-rich pockets in miarolitic pegmatites. In: American Mineralogist, Vol. 71, p. 386–405.
Bancroft, P. (1989), Gem Mining in San Diego Co. Environment SW, San Diego Natural History Museum, Nr. 525, p. 14-20.
Keller, P. C. (1989), The Gems of San Diego Co. Environment SW, San Diego Natural History Museum, Nr. 525, p. 11-13.
Foord, E. E., Starkey, H. C., and Taggart, J. E., Jr. (1986), Mineralogy and paragenesis of "pocket" clays and associated minerals in complex granitic pegmatites, San Diego, California. American Mineralogist, 7 I, p. 428-439.
Fisher, J. (2002), Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record 33(5), p. 363-407.
Kampf, A. R., et al (2003), Tourmaline Discovery at the Cryo-Genie Mine, San Diego County, California, Rocks & Minerals 78(3), p. 156-168.
Patterson, J. E. (2003), Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) at the Cryo-Genie Gem Pegmatite Mine, San Diego County, California. University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Clanin, R. J. (2004), The Cryo-Genie Pegmatite: a complexly zoned, LCT pegmatite in the Peninsular Ranges Batholith, San Diego County, California. Geological Society of America, Vol. 36(5), p. 44–45.
United States Geological Survey (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, Deposit ID 10262337 (Mineral Availability System (MAS/MILS ID) database file # 0060730115).
Lyter, M. and Sirbescu, M. (2006), Fluid evolution in a gem-bearing pocket pegmatite at the Cryo-Genie Mine, San Diego County, California. A novel method of gemstone exploration, Geological Society of America, Vol. 38(7), p. 558.
Clanin, R. J. (2006), Mining of Pegmatite-related Primary Gem Deposits. In: Gems & Gemology, Vol. 42, Issue 3, p. 145.
Bureau of Land Management (2007), Cindy B-Cryogenie Lode Claim, San Diego County, California: Serial Number Index of Claims, United States Department of Interior; Sept.
Maloney, J. (2007), Lithium and Lithium Isotopes in Tourmaline as indicators of crystallization processes: A study of San Diego County Pegmatites, California. Thesis at University of Missouri-Columbia.
Maloney, J. et al (2008), Lithium and its isotopes in tourmaline as indicators of the crystallization process in the San Diego County pegmatites, California, USA. In: European Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 20, p. 906–916.
Symons, D. T. A. et al (2009), Paleomagnetism of the mid-cretaceous gem-bearing dikes of San Diego County, California, USA. In: Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 46, No. 9, p. 675–687.
Fisher, J. (2011), Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 86, p. 14-34.

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USGS MRDS Record:10262337

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