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Connecticut, USAi
Regional Level Types
ConnecticutState
USACountry

This page kindly sponsored by Harold Moritz
Key
00539120014946283395580.jpg
Mine Exploration

Connecticut, USA
04683050014946313161369.jpg
Winze Or Sump?

Connecticut, USA
07209270014946313135885.jpg
Mine Exploration

Connecticut, USA
00539120014946283395580.jpg
Mine Exploration

Connecticut, USA
04683050014946313161369.jpg
Winze Or Sump?

Connecticut, USA
07209270014946313135885.jpg
Mine Exploration

Connecticut, USA
00539120014946283395580.jpg
Mine Exploration

Connecticut, USA
05915700014946313161796.jpg
Winze Or Sump?

Connecticut, USA
Area:
14,357 km2
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Bridgeport147,629 (2017)
New Haven130,322 (2017)
Stamford128,874 (2017)
Hartford124,006 (2017)
North Stamford121,230 (2017)
Waterbury108,802 (2017)
Other Languages:
French:
Connecticut, États-Unis
German:
Connecticut, Vereinigte Staaten
Italian:
Connecticut, Stati Uniti d'America
Russian:
Коннектикут, Соединённые Штаты Америки
Simplified Chinese:
康乃狄克州, 美国
Spanish:
Connecticut, Estados Unidos
Afrikaans:
Connecticut, Verenigde State van Amerika
Albanian:
Connecticut, Shtetet e Bashkuara të Amerikës
Amharic:
ኮነቲከት, አሜሪካ
Anglo-Saxon:
Connecticut, Geānedu Rīcu American
Arabic:
كونيتيكت, الولايات المتحدة
Aragonese:
Connecticut
Armenian:
Կոնեկտիկուտ, Ամերիկայի Միացյալ Նահանգներ
Asturian:
Connecticut, Estaos Xuníos d'América
Aymara:
Connecticut suyu, Istadus Unidus
Azeri:
Konnektikut, Amerika Birləşmiş Ştatları
Basque:
Connecticut
Bavarian:
Connecticut, Vaoanigte Stootn
Belarusian:
Канектыкут, Злучаныя Штаты Амерыкі
Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa):
Канэктыкут, Злучаныя Штаты Амэрыкі
Bengali:
কানেটিকাট, মার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্র
Bishnupriya Manipuri:
কানেকটিকাট, তিলপারাষ্ট্র
Bislama:
Connecticut, Yunaeted Stet blong Amerika
Bosnian:
Connecticut, Sjedinjene Američke Države
Breton:
Connecticut, Stadoù-Unanet Amerika
Bulgarian:
Кънектикът, Съединени американски щати
Burmese:
ကွန်နက်တီကတ်ပြည်နယ်, အမေရိကန်ပြည်ထောင်စု
Catalan:
Connecticut, Estats Units d’Amèrica
Cebuano:
Connecticut
Central Bikol:
Connecticut, Estados Unidos
Chechen:
Коннектикут, Америкин Цхьаьнатоьхна Штаташ
Chuvash:
Коннектикут, Пĕрлешнĕ Штатсем
Cornish:
Connecticut, Statys Unys
Corsican:
Connecticut, Stati Uniti d'America
Croatian:
Connecticut, Sjedinjene Američke Države
Czech:
Connecticut, Spojené státy americké
Danish:
Connecticut, USA
Dutch:
Connecticut, Verenigde Staten
Dutch Low Saxon:
Connecticut, Verienigde Staoten van Amerika
Egyptian Arabic:
كونيتيكت, امريكا
Emilian-Romagnol:
Connecticut, Stat Unî
Esperanto:
Konektikuto
Estonian:
Connecticut, Ameerika Ühendriigid
Faroese:
Connecticut
Farsi/Persian:
کنتیکت, ایالات متحده آمریکا
Fiji Hindi:
Connecticut, United States
Finnish:
Connecticut, Yhdysvallat
Franco-Provençal:
Connecticut, Ètats-Unis
Gagauz:
Connecticut, Amerika Birleşik Devletläri
Galician:
Connecticut, Estados Unidos de América
Georgian:
კონექტიკუტი, ამერიკის შეერთებული შტატები
Greek:
Κονέκτικατ, Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες Αμερικής
Guarani:
Connecticut, Tetãvore Joapykuéra
Haitian:
Konèktikòt, Etazini
Hakka:
Connecticut
Hausa:
Connecticut, Tarayyar Amurka
Hawaiian:
Konekikuka, ‘Amelika Hui Pū ‘ia
Hebrew:
קונטיקט, ארצות הברית
Hill Mari:
Коннектикут, Америкын Ушымы Штатвлӓжӹ
Hindi:
कनेक्टिकट, संयुक्त राज्य
Hungarian:
Connecticut, Amerikai Egyesült Államok
Icelandic:
Connecticut, Bandaríkin
Ido:
Connecticut, Usa
Igbo:
Kónétíkùt, Njikọ̀taọ̀hà
Iloko:
Connecticut, Estados Unidos iti Amerika
Indonesian:
Connecticut, Amerika Serikat
Interlingua:
Connecticut, Statos Unite de America
Irish Gaelic:
Connecticut, Stáit Aontaithe Mheiriceá
Japanese:
コネチカット州, アメリカ合衆国
Javanese:
Connecticut, Amérika Sarékat
Judaeo-Spanish:
Connecticut, Estados Unidos de Amerika
Kabiye:
Kɔnɛtɩkuti, Etaazuunii
Kabyle:
Connecticut, Iwunak Yeddukklen n Temrikt
Kalmyk:
Коннектикут, Америкин Ниицәтә Орн Нутугуд
Kannada:
ಕನೆಕ್ಟಿಕಟ್, ಅಮೇರಿಕ ಸಂಯುಕ್ತ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ
Kapampangan:
Connecticut, Estados Unidos
Kazakh (Cyrillic Script):
Коннектикут, Америка Құрама Штаттары
Khmer:
ខុនណេកទីខាត់, សហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក
Korean:
코네티컷주, 미국
Kurdish (Latin Script):
Connecticut, Dewletên Yekbûyî yên Amerîkayê
Latin:
Connecticuta, Civitates Foederatae Americae
Latvian:
Konektikuta, Amerikas Savienotās Valstis
Ligurian:
Connecticut, Stati Unïi d'America
Limburgian:
Connecticut, Vereinegde Staote vaan Amerika
Lithuanian:
Konektikutas, Jungtinės Amerikos Valstijos
Lombard:
Connecticut, Stat Ünì d'America
Low Saxon/Low German:
Connecticut, USA
Luri:
کانتیکئت, ڤولاتچٱیا یٱکاگرتٱ آمریکا
Luxembourgish:
Connecticut, Vereenegt Staate vun Amerika
Macedonian:
Конектикат, Соединети Американски Држави
Maithili:
कनेक्टिकट, संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका
Malagasy:
Connecticut, Etazonia
Malay:
Connecticut, Amerika Syarikat
Malayalam:
കണെക്റ്റിക്കട്ട്
Manx:
Connecticut, Steatyn Unnaneysit America
Maori:
Connecticut, Hononga-o-Amerika
Marathi:
कनेक्टिकट, अमेरिकेची संयुक्त संस्थाने
Mazanderani:
کنتیکت
Meadow Mari:
Коннектикут, Ушымо Американ Штат-влак
Min Dong Chinese:
Connecticut
Mingrelian:
კონექტიკუტი, ამერიკაშ აკოართაფილი შტატეფი
Mongolian:
Коннектикут, Америкийн Нэгдсэн Улс
Nauruan:
Connecticut, Eben Merika
Nepali:
कनेक्टिकट, संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका
Newar / Nepal Bhasa:
कनेक्तिकत, संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका
Northern Frisian:
Connecticut, Feriind Stoote foon Ameerika
Northern Sami:
Connecticut, Amerihká ovttastuvvan stáhtat
Norwegian:
Connecticut, USA
Norwegian (Nynorsk):
Connecticut, USA
Occitan:
Connecticut, Estats Units d'America
Ossetian:
Коннектикут, Америкæйы Иугонд Штаттæ
Pali:
कनेक्टिकट, संयुक्त राज्य अमेरिका
Pennsylvania German:
Connecticut, Amerikaa
Piedmontese:
Connecticut, Stat Unì d'América
Polish:
Connecticut, Stany Zjednoczone
Portuguese:
Connecticut, Estados Unidos
Punjabi:
ਕਨੈਟੀਕਟ, ਸੰਯੁਕਤ ਰਾਜ ਅਮਰੀਕਾ
Quechua:
Connecticut suyu, Hukllachasqa Amirika Suyukuna
Romanian:
Connecticut, Statele Unite ale Americii
Romansh:
Connecticut, Stadis Unids
Russia Buriat:
Коннектикут
Samogitian:
Konektėkots, JAV
Sanskrit:
कनेक्टिकट्, अमेरिकासंयुक्तराज्यम्
Sardinian:
Connecticut, Istados Unidos de Amèrica
Saterland Frisian:
Connecticut, Fereende Stoaten fon Amerikoa
Scots:
Connecticut
Scottish Gaelic:
Connecticut, Na Stàitean Aonaichte
Serbian:
Конектикат, Сједињене Америчке Државе
Serbo-Croatian:
Connecticut, Sjedinjene Američke Države
Sicilian:
Connecticut, Stati Uniti
Silesian:
Connecticut, Zjednoczůne Sztaty
Slovak:
Connecticut, Spojené štáty
Slovenian:
Connecticut, Združene države Amerike
South Azerbaijani:
کانتیکت ایالتی, آمریکا بیرلشمیش ایالتلری
Swahili:
Connecticut, Marekani
Swedish:
Connecticut, USA
Tagalog:
Connecticut, Estados Unidos
Tamil:
கனெடிகட், அமெரிக்க ஐக்கிய நாடு
Tatar:
Коннектикут, Америка Кушма Штатлары
Telugu:
కనెక్టికట్, అమెరికా సంయుక్త రాష్ట్రాలు
Thai:
รัฐคอนเนตทิคัต, ประเทศสหรัฐอเมริกา
Traditional Chinese:
康湼狄格州, 美國
Turkish:
Connecticut, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri
Ukrainian:
Коннектикут, Сполучені Штати Америки
Upper Sorbian:
Connecticut, Zjednoćene staty Ameriki
Urdu:
کنیکٹیکٹ, ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکا
Uyghur:
Konnéktikat Shitati, ئامېرىكا قوشما شىتاتلىرى
Uzbek (Latin Script):
Konnektikut, Amerika Qoʻshma Shtatlari
Vietnamese:
Connecticut, Chủng Quốc Hoa Kỳ
Volapük:
Connecticut, Lamerikän
Waray:
Connecticut, Estados Unidos
Welsh:
Connecticut, Unol Daleithiau America
West Frisian:
Konettikut, Feriene Steaten
Western Punjabi:
کنکٹیکٹ, امریکہ
Wu Chinese:
康涅狄格, 美国
Xhosa:
IKhonethikhati, IYunayithedi Steyitsi
Yakut:
Коннектикут, Америка Холбоһуктаах Штааттара
Yiddish:
קאנעטיקעט, פאראייניקטע שטאטן פון אמעריקע
Yoruba:
Connecticut
Zazaki:
Connecticut, Dewletê Amerikayê Yewbiyayey
Zeelandic:
Connecticut, Vereênigde Staeten
Zulu:
Connecticut, IMelika


Hierarchy:
Connecticut is politically divided into 8 counties - Fairfield, Hartford, Litchfield, Middlesex, New Haven, New London, Tolland, and Windham. Below the county level, the entire state is divided into 169 incorporated towns and cities, there is no unincorporated land. Typically within the boundaries of an incorporated town or city is a population center with the same name as the incorporated one, such as the town and village of East Haddam. There are also other named population centers within incorporated towns/cities that are sometimes more populated than the village with the incorporated town name, such as Falls Village in the town of Canaan, or Willimantic in the town of Windham. A few of these have established boundaries. Villages and other geographic places within an incorporated town/city typically serve as a more precise reference to a mineral locality. But in some cases there is a village with the same name as a different incorporated town. For example, the village of Canaan is in the incorporated town of North Canaan not the incorporated town of Canaan. Both of these towns include many mineral localities that if just referred to as Canaan would cause confusion.
All Connecticut localities listed in mindat.org should include:
- the name(s) of the locality
- (optional) the closest city or village or other place name (if relevant or different from the incorporated town/city) (USGS maps are a good reference)
- the name of the incorporated town/city (1 of 169)
- the county name

Geology:
Connecticut has a long and complex geologic history that resulted in the presence of many types of sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic and hydrothermal rocks. There are three primary bedrock geologic regions that are part of the continental scale Appalachian Orogen:

1) Metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Western highlands.
2) Sedimentary and igneous rocks of the Central Lowlands (the Hartford Mesozoic Basin of the Newark Terrane).
3) Metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Eastern Highlands.

Within the Western Highlands the metamorphic rocks occur in three major tectonic terranes:

1) Mesoproterozoic massifs (mostly ortho and paragneisses, migmatites and amphibolites) with Neoproterozoic and Cambro-Ordovician quartzite, gneiss, schist and marble shelf sequences (Laurentian continental margin deposits), including the goethite iron ore deposits formed from metamorphosed lateritic soil. These are exposed in westernmost Connecticut and in the core of the Waterbury Dome.
2) Allochthonous Taconian (Hoosic, Manhattan and Canaan Mountain) schist and amphibolite - (Neoproterozoic and Cambrian continental slope deposits), exposed also in westernmost Connecticut.
3) Allochthonous Connecticut Valley Synclinorium and Milford-Orange Terranes (oceanic terranes consisting mostly of Cambrian to Silurian schist and granofels, and intruded by gneissic syntectonic plutons). Parts of these terranes are unconformably capped by Devonian/early Silurian The Straits Schist and Wepawaug Schist. This belt lies in the eastern and southern parts of the Western Highlands.

The Mesoproterozoic massifs underwent metamorphism during the Ottowan phase (approx. 1.05 Ga) of the Grenville Orogeny. These rocks, their Neoproterozoic to Ordovician cover, and the terranes to their east also were deformed by the Taconian and Acadian Orogenies.

Within the Western highlands there are also a few large post-tectonic plutons such as the very late Devonian Nonewaug Granite (and associated pegmatites) and Permian Pinewood Adamellite; numerous small Devonian pegmatites; and the Mesozoic Pomperaug Basin with similar sedimentary and igneous rocks as the much larger Mesozoic Hartford Basin.

The Mesozoic Hartford Basin, part of the Newark Terrane of rift basins formed during the Triassic-Jurassic breakup of Pangaea, underlies the Central Lowlands of Connecticut. It is a continental graben filled with 8-10 km of clastics - arkosic conglomerates, sandstones and mudstones with minor carbonate and petroleum-rich lacustrian shales - three basalt lava flows (including the much-quarried Jurassic Holyoke Basalt), and numerous diabase plutons (principally the Jurassic West Rock Diabase) that also extent into the adjacent highlands.

Within the Eastern Highlands the metamorphic rocks occur in six major tectonic terranes:

1) The Bronson Hill Anticlinorium, which consists of metamorphosed felsic plutons and volcanics of an Ordovician island arc. Part of this terrane is unconformably capped by Devonian/Silurian Bolton Group meta-sediments. This terrane underlies the western part of the Eastern Highlands.
2, 3) Allochthonous Merrimack and Central Maine Terranes (oceanic terranes consisting mostly of Ordovician to Devonian schist, siliceous and calc-silicate gneiss and granofels, and intruded by gneissic syntectonic plutons). These terranes are exposed in the central part of the eastern highlands.
4) Putnam-Nashoba island arc terrane consisting mostly of Ordovician orthogneisses and exposed in far eastern Connecticut and in the Willimantic Dome.
5, 6) Avalon and Gander (Stony Creek, Clinton and Lyme Domes) continental terranes consisting of Neoproterozoic gray ortho and paragneisses, quartzite, meta-granites and alaskite. The Gander Lyme Dome also includes Permian alaskite gneiss. These terranes are intruded by numerous small, post-tectonic plutons of Permian Westerly (or Narragansett Pier) granite and pegmatite. These terranes crop out along the southeastern and eastern edges of the state, and in the Willimantic Dome.

Numerous small to large very early Permian pegmatites intrude the Eastern Highlands terranes, particularly in the area east of Middletown known as the Middletown Pegmatite District.

Ductile faulting on a continental scale has greatly affected the metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Western and Eastern Highlands. Barrovian metamorphism extends from low grade (Chlorite Zone) to high grade (Sillimanite Zone), there is very little contact metamorphism (mostly around the Litchfield Norite) though there is retrograde metamorphism in many areas. Despite the extensive tectonic history, there are only a few remnants of lower oceanic igneous crust; serpentinized fragments of these are found mainly in the Satan's Kingdom area and Orange-Milford Belt.

Brittle faulting associated with the Triassic-Jurassic breakup of Pangaea affected all of Connecticut. Numerous, regional faults are mapped in the Eastern and Western Highlands and, of course, within, bordering and cross-cutting the Hartford and Pomperaug Mesozoic Basins, which formed during this time. Intense brittle faulting is particularly well exposed in the New Britain-Newington area where faults are present every few meters. Many faults and even fractures are mineralized due to hydrothermal activity, the most prominent example being the Lantern Hill quartz lode in North Stonington.

Although late Cretaceous and Tertiary transgressive sediments of the Coastal Plains of eastern North America did cover part of Connecticut, erosion has removed them. Pleistocene glaciation affected the state and deposited extensive till, deltaic sands and gravels, and lacustrian silts and clays.

Mineralogy:
Due to its long and complex geologic history, Connecticut boasts a large variety of mineral forming environments and thus a long list of mineral species. The presence of these deposits so close to major colleges and universities such as Yale, Harvard, Wesleyan, Amherst, and University of Connecticut provided specimens for study by early luminaries such as Archibald Bruce, Benjamin Silliman, Edward Dana, James Dana, George Brush, Wilbur Foye, and Charles Shepard and more recently David London. Mineral specimens from Connecticut are in the museum collections at Greenwich, Middletown, New Haven, and Kent, Connecticut; plus Cambridge and Amherst, Massachusetts; New York City; Washington, DC and beyond. It also created and continues to inspire a plethora of amateur collectors, mostly as hobbyists but also many who have made major contributions (through publications and collections) to the knowledge of the state's mines and minerals, such as Ronald Januzzi, Richard Schooner, Neal Yedlin, Charles and Marcelle Weber, Bill Shelton, John (Jack) Pawloski, Bruce Jarnot, John Hiller, Earle Sullivan, Ed Force, Bob Jones and many others.

The minerals of Connecticut can best be generally categorized by their host rock types and environments listed below.

Igneous Rock Minerals:
- Rock forming minerals in large plutons - albite, microcline/orthoclase, quartz, biotite series, muscovite, dark amphiboles, dark pyroxenes.
- Accessory minerals in large plutons - almandine, fluorapatite, titanite, zircon, rutile, allanite, monazite, schorl, pyrite.
- Rock forming minerals in basalt and diabase - anorthite, augite, pigeonite, olivine.
- Pegmatite minerals - albite (including cleavelandite), microcline, quartz, muscovite, annite, almandine, tourmalines, beryl, fluorapatite, columbite-tantalite, samarskite, uraninite (and secondaries), monazite, zircon, montebrasite, lepidolite, spodumene (and alterations), lithiophilite-triphyllite (and alterations), microlite, cookeite, topaz, opal-AN, pollucite, calcite, fluorite, sulfides, numerous other secondary and rare minerals.

Metamorphic Rock Minerals:
- Rock forming minerals in siliceous schist, gneiss, and amphibolite - albite, quartz, muscovite, biotite series, chlorite series, microcline, dark amphiboles, dark pyroxenes.
- Accessory minerals in siliceous schist, gneiss, and amphibolite - chlorite group, almandine, kyanite, sillimanite, andalusite, ilmenite, fluorapatite, staurolite, cordierite, graphite, rutile, goethite, schorl, titanite, corundum, magnetite, monazite, epidote/clinozoisite, scheelite, ferberite, sulfides.
- Rock forming minerals in marble and calc-silicate rocks - calcite, dolomite, diopside, tremolite, grossular, scapolite series, albite, phlogopite.
- Accessory minerals in marble and calc-silicate rocks - dravite-uvite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, graphite, norbergite-chondrodite, titanite, spinel/magnetite, fluorapatite, corundum, quartz, chlorite series, talc, serpentine group, wollastonite, vesuvianite, epidote/clinozoisite/zoisite, microcline, axinite, forsterite, danburite.
- Minerals in serpentinites - serpentine (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile), talc, pyrophyllite, chlorite series, calcite, tremolite, diopside, epidote/clinozoisite, magnetite, chromite, sulfides (including secondaries).

Sedimentary Rock Minerals:
Mostly clastics consisting of fragments of quartz, feldspars and other rock types, typically cemented by albite with a small amount of hematite, chlorites, and zeolites. The bituminous lacustrian shales include pyrite and nodules of magnesite and there are rare tufa deposits composed of calcite.

Hydrothermal Minerals:
- Minerals in gas vesicles in basalt and diabase - calcite, quartz/chalcedony/agate, datolite, prehnite, pectolite, apophyllite, pumpellyite, julgoldite, babingtonite, adularia, gypsum, anhydrite, celestine, goethite, hematite, sulfides, zeolites (stilbite, heulandite, natrolite, analcime, laumontite, gmelinite, chabazite, mordenite).
- Minerals in faults and fractures - quartz, calcite, dolomite, fluorite, barite, aragonite, siderite, sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, arsenopyrite, chalcocite, bornite) and secondaries, topaz, muscovite, prehnite, pectolite, goethite, hematite, zeolites.

Mining and Quarrying:
All of the above rock types and mineral deposits have been exploited by thousands of open quarries, underground mines, and prospects, studied by geologists and mineralogists, and combed over by collectors. Although Native Americans are known to have worked quartz, talc and serpentinite deposits, the arrival of Europeans and Africans beginning in the early 17th century saw greatly increasing demand for geologic resources.

Besides rock quarrying all over the state for construction purposes, marble deposits were worked for quicklime, particularly in the marble belt in the western part of the Western Highlands. This resource is still in great demand for a variety of purposes and was also mined during WWII for dolomite (magnesium) for aircraft production and the Manhattan Project. Marble quarries are still active in Canaan and North Canaan.

"Granite", mostly actually metamorphosed plutons or meta-volcanic gneisses but also including true Westerly (or Narragansett Pier) granite, was in great demand for construction of expanding towns and cities, and for fortifications starting in the early 19th century, until largely replaced by concrete in the early 20th century. Granite quarrying still takes place in Stony Creek (Branford) and Roxbury.

To satisfy the huge demand for concrete, many quarries worked the diabase and basalt in both the Hartford and Pomperaug Basins for crushed stone. Others work massive gneissic rock in the highlands. Several very large quarries are still active in the Holyoke Basalt, particularly in Southbury/Woodbury, North Branford, Wallingford/Durham, Plainville, Meriden and East Granby. These quarries represent the major mining taking place in Connecticut today. The basalt quarries, and various construction sites that blasted open this rock, sometimes opened up fantastically mineralized gas vesicles and fractures.

"Brownstone", primarily an aeolian arkosic sandstone found in the Jurassic Portland Formation of the Hartford Basin, was heavily quarried for building stone until the early 20th century, particularly at Portland and Manchester. Minor brownstone quarrying took place in Portland from the early 1990s until 2012.

Quarrying and mining for minerals concentrated on four major resources: iron from goethite and siderite; feldspar and mica from pegmatites; garnet from metamorphic rocks; and baryte, quartz, and metal ores from hydrothermal veins. The majority of this activity was economically successful, except most of the mining of metal ores from hydrothermal veins. The tungsten mine in Trumbull worked accessory scheelite and ferberite in an amphibolite, but was also not successful. Nor was the cobalt-nickel mining near Great Hill in East Hampton that, like Trumbull, worked a stratigraphic deposit rather than a hydrothermal vein. Pentlandite, chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite grains in the Litchfield Norite is another non-hydrothermal metal deposit that saw failed attempts at profitable mining.

The goethite iron ores mostly originated as lateritic soil formed on an unconformity between the Stockbridge Marble and Walloomsac Schist that was preserved and later metamorphosed. This stratigraphic horizon crops out in a belt largely in Salisbury where it was mined for iron in several places from the early 18th century until 1923. Known for its toughness, Salisbury iron was in great demand for cannon, chains, anchors, and railroad wheels. The Kent mine worked geothite formed in the stratigraphically lower Cambrian Dalton Formation. Here, and at a location in Sharon where it was mined, part of the Dalton was weathered to kaolinite. Another 19th century iron mine operated on Mine Hill in Roxbury exploiting the siderite vein there, which is the largest in North America.

Microcline, muscovite and other minerals were quarried and mined from the numerous pegmatites from about 1825 until 1990. There are hundreds of pegmatite quarries, mostly in the Middletown District in the Eastern Highlands, but also scattered around the Western Highlands such as at Bethel, Ridgefield, Branchville, New Milford, and Woodbury. A burst of pegmatite mining activity took place during and after WWII when sheet mica was in great demand, and for uranium and beryllium for nuclear weapons and power. A by-product of this activity was the production of a plethora of rare and gem minerals that were used for scientific and lapidary purposes and that are still sought after by collectors. Connecticut pegmatites host 9 of the state's 15 type locality minerals or varieties as well as the first known columbite crystal. Some of the first radiometric dating of minerals used uraninite and samarskite from Branchville and Glastonbury. The Roebling quarry, Gillette quarry and Strickland pegmatite were major gem producers, particularly for colored tourmalines and beryl. Most pegmatite quarries closed after the federal subsidies for beryl and mica ended in the 1950s because the high grading of ore was largely done manually. But The Feldspar Corp. operated the state’s largest pegmatite quarries in the White Rock area of Middletown (plus the Hale and Gotta-Wannerstrom quarries in Portland) from about 1960 to 1990 using efficient floatation technology to separate the minerals from vast quantities of crushed ore.

Although not a pegmatite quarry, the quarry for the reservoir dam at East Morris worked an outlier of the Devonian Nonewaug granite and intersected numerous, large miarolitic cavities in pegmatitic phases of the granite. The cavities produced great smoky quartz and microcline crystals with albite similar in quality and size to those from granite plutons in northern New Hampshire.

Almandine for abrasives was quarried from metamorphic rocks in several places, the most famous was in Roxbury where the host schist is largely altered to crumbly talc facilitating the separation of the dodecahedral porphyroblasts.

Finally, the hydrothermal veins so plentiful from the Triassic-Jurassic rifting of Pangaea were exploited for a variety of minerals, primarily quartz at the giant lode at Lantern Hill and other places. Many smaller faults, particularly those cross-cutting quartzite in the highlands, are brecciated with open spaces lined with fantastic quartz crystals, such as at West Stafford, Haddam, Moosup, and Avon. Amethyst occurs at the Canton Lead Mine in Canton. The hydrothermal veins were also worked mainly for copper and baryte during the 19th century. Baryte was successfully mined in Cheshire and copper mining was moderately successful at the Simsbury Mine (the first chartered copper mine in North America) in what is now East Granby, and at the Bristol Copper Mine, famous for its fantastic chalcocite and bornite crystals. There are many small holes and shafts dug by prospectors in search of silver, lead, copper, cobalt, nickel, and the elusive gold, none of which really panned out but now provide places for mineral collectors to ply their trade.

Coordinates are at the intersection of Interstates 91 and 691, state Routes 15 and 66, and East Main Street in Meriden very near the geographic center of the state.

References covering the state, or significant regions of it, are listed below.

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Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

366 valid minerals. 14 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals. 1 (FRL) - first recorded locality of unapproved mineral/variety/etc. 21 erroneous literature entries.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

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Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Actinolite
Formula: ☐Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
Habit: bladed
Colour: dark green
Description: Beautiful bladed crystals on massive actinolite from a locality near the "Stonehenge Inn".
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury.
Aegirine
Formula: NaFe3+Si2O6
Reference: Dale, T. Nelson and Gregory Herbert E. (1911): The Granites of Connecticut (USGS Bulletin 484).
Aegirine-augite
Formula: (NaaCabFe2+cMgd)(Fe3+eAlfFe2+gMgh)Si2O6
Habit: anhedral to subhedral elongated prisms
Colour: black to dark green
Description: Reported by Dale and Gregory as aegirine in 1911, the mineral found here has since been redefined as aegirine-augite.
Reference: Dale, T. Nelson and Gregory Herbert E. (1911): The Granites of Connecticut (USGS Bulletin 484).; Macrostrat.org rock unit description.; Wolley, Allan R. (1987), Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World, Part I, North and South America. London: British Museum of Natural History; University of Texas Press.
'Aeschynite'
Description: now equivalent to Davidite-(La)
Reference: Januzzi, R.E. and Seaman, David M. (1976) Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
'Albertite'
Reference: John Burnham
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 187 localities in this region.
Habit: blocky, equant
Colour: white to pale gray
Fluorescence: lavender, magenta-pink
Description: Besides a major constituent of the pegmatite, crystals in small pockets reach up to about 2 cm, often in dense clusters, also as overgrowth on microcline on cleavelandite and psuedomorphous after muscovite in the wall zone.
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Cameron et al (1954) USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Albite var. Andesine
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: http://mineral-resources.findthebest.com/l/66538/Voorhis-Diorite-Gneiss-Rock-Quarry
Albite var. Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Habit: tabular prisms
Colour: white
Fluorescence: reddish magenta to lavender
Description: as irregular aggregates of small subhedral crystals, often in very aesthetic arrangements, and as veins 1/8 to ¼ inch wide and as much as 6 feet long
Reference: Cameron et al (1954) USGS Prof Paper 255, Ronald Januzzi collection
Albite var. Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Habit: anhedral but in large cleavable masses
Colour: white to pale green
Description: Gemmy and in large cleavable masses.
Reference: Foye, W. G. (1922): Mineral Localities in the Vicinity of Middletown, Connecticut. (American Mineralogist 7:4-12)
Albite var. Peristerite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min. vol. 64 (1989)
'Alkali Feldspar'
Reference: Philpotts, Anthony R. and Doreen E. Philpotts. (2007), Upward and downward flow in a camptonite dike as recorded by deformed vesicles and the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research: 161: 81-94.
Allanite-(Ce)
Formula: {CaCe}{Al2Fe2+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Habit: elongated prisms
Colour: black, very dark brown
Description: Very sharp terminated crystals crystals, up to half an inch in diameter and five or six inches in length, accompany pink fluorite. Massive material also occurs, intergrown with quartz, bastnaesite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and white to greenish plagioclase (commonly stained brown). The allanite is not very radioactive and was identified by an x-ray diffraction test by Mary E. Mrose of the U. S. Geological Survey. She indicated that it gave an exceptionally clear pattern. It was obviously non-metamict, in keeping with its unaltered appearance and virtual lack of radioactivity. Note: Schooner misidentified these as staurolite in Zodac (1940).
Reference: Zodac, Peter. (1940): A Chlorophane Occurrence Near East Hampton, Conn. Rocks & Minerals, vol. 15, no. 11, p. 376.; Robinson, George W. and Vandall T. King. (1988), What's New in Minerals? Mineralogical Record: 19(5): 332.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough).; Schooner, Richard. (1961): THE MINERALOGY OF CONNECTICUT.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 18 localities in this region.
Reference: Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995): Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 403.
Alleghanyite
Formula: Mn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
Colour: reddish
Description: Found by Dick Schooner. A segregation over a foot in diameter, it consisted mainly of reddish alleghanyite and pinkish kutnohorite, with accessories. Unfortunately, only a few specimens were saved.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: Dana 6:693.
Alluaudite ?
Formula: (Na,Ca)Mn2+(Fe3+,Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)2(PO4)3
Habit: pseudomorph after triphylite?
Description: From Januzzi (1994): "Alluaudite, collected and recently identified by the author as occurring at Branchville (confirmation by Kampf, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History), is evidently a pseudomorph after euhedral crystals of triphylite." Needs confirmation.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald. E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Localities: Reported from at least 120 localities in this region.
Habit: dodecahedral
Colour: maroon to purple, nearly black
Fluorescence: none
Description: Crystals can reach over 2.5 cm on an edge. Unpublished XRF analysis by Harold Moritz found 98% Fe of total Fe+Mn content. Hiller (1983) noted that some gem quality garnets will show 4-star rays if properly cut.
Reference: Yedlin, Leo N. (1947), Garnet at Roxbury and W. Redding, Conn. Rocks and Minerals, 22(9): 824-825.; Hiller, John. (1983), The Green's Farm Garnet Mine. Gems and Minerals: (547): 34-36.
'Almandine-Spessartine Series'
Habit: trapezohedral
Colour: dark maroon with black coating
Description: Crystals to 4 inches. Referred to by Schooner as spessartine, but most likely impure almandine based on XRF analyses of many other district pegmatitic garnets.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958), The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
'Alum Group'
Formula: XAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
Amblygonite
Formula: LiAl(PO4)F
Description: Re-identified as montebrasite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Jarnot & Jarnot (2004)
'Amphibole Supergroup var. Byssolite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Habit: fibrous
Colour: very pale green
Reference: Former Ronald Januzzi collection
'Amphibole Supergroup var. Uralite' ?
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Description: Included in a list of minerals with no details.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut: 192-201.
Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Habit: trapezohedra
Colour: white
Description: good though generally small (~1 cm or less) crystals associated with prehnite, natrolite, micro heulandite
Reference: Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, p.65, 114; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Habit: bipyramidal
Colour: metallic blue to yellow and green
Description: "brilliant, metallic bluish, bipyramidal crystals and as bi-colored, glassy crystals exhibiting the same morphology (these crystals are blue to yellow, at times greenish in color), both deeply striated and occurring in alpine type seams"
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. Taylor Associates/Mineralogical Press, Danbury.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Habit: elongated with square cross-sections
Colour: gray-brown
Description: Crystals in quartz to 6 cm. May be pseudomorphed by fine-grained mica/kyanite.
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1837) A Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut. Hamlen, New Haven.
Andradite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Habit: modified rhombic dodecahedrons
Colour: wine yellow
Description: "The Mill Rock garnets have a wine-yellow color, and a brilliant luster. The material available was much too scanty to admit of any chemical examination, but in view of their similarity of form and color, they may safely be referred to the variety topazolite." (Dana, 1877). They are a couple of mm across or less. Visual ID only, material too scant for analysis back then.
Reference: Dana, Edward S. (1877): On the occurrence of Garnets with the Trap of New Haven, Connecticut. American Journal of Science Series 3, Volume 14, page 215.; Longwell & Dana, 1932. Walks & Rides in Central CT & MA, p.228.
Andradite var. Melanite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Habit: rhombic dodecahedral, often in nearly parallel positions in rosettes
Colour: dark-brown to jet-black, occasionally yellowish-brown
Description: Rosettes reach to about 2 cm across.
Reference: Dana, Edward S. (1877): On the occurrence of Garnets with the Trap of New Haven, Connecticut. American Journal of Science Series 3, Volume 14, page 215.
Andradite var. Topazolite
Formula: Ca3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Habit: modified rhombic dodecahedrons
Colour: wine yellow
Description: "The Mill Rock garnets have a wine-yellow color, and a brilliant luster. The material available was much too scanty to admit of any chemical examination, but in view of their similarity of form and color, they may safely be referred to the variety topazolite." (Dana, 1877). They are a couple of mm across or less. Visual ID only, material too scant for analysis back then.
Reference: Dana, Edward S. (1877): On the occurrence of Garnets with the Trap of New Haven, Connecticut. American Journal of Science Series 3, Volume 14, page 215.; Longwell & Dana, 1932. Walks & Rides in Central CT & MA, p.228.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State, p.218.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Habit: Cleavable masses, molds surrounded by epimorphs
Colour: white to pale blue
Description: Extant crystals very rare in Conn. - nearly all were dissolved away and exist as platy to rectangular prismatic molds, but here there were "large pearly masses showing cleavage surfaces often 10 cm. or more broad. There is abundant evidence that anhydrite has been present in almost universal distribution, but it now remains undissolved only in the centers of the less pervious blocks of rock. Molds of anhydrite crystals varying from stout prisms to exceedingly thin sheets are abundant everywhere." Shannon (1920).
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1920), The Trap Quarry at Meriden, Connecticut. The American Mineralogist: 5(2):34.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Habit: rhombohedral
Description: Typical small rhombs <1 cm. Uncertain in the reference if the crystals are true ankerite under the revised definition, or ferroan dolomite, or how to distinguish them from the much more common magnesite.
Reference: Ague, J. J. (1995): Deep Crustal Growth of Quartz, Kyanite and Garnet into Large-Aperature, fluid-filled fractures, northeastern Connecticut, USA. Journal of Metamorphic Geology: 13: 299-314.
Annabergite
Formula: Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Habit: coatings
Colour: bright to pale green
Description: waxy, pale to bright green coatings on ore-bearing host rocks, particularly around bronze nickeline grains.
Reference: Schooner (1958); Januzzi (1976) Mineral Localities of Connecticut & Southeastern New York State
Annite
Formula: KFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 65 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 12: 141-143.
Anorthite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si2O8)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Anorthite var. Bytownite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Anorthite var. Labradorite
Formula: (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Description: The references provide no details, but anorthite is a component of the diabase dike exposed in the cut.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough).
Anthophyllite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Habit: prismatic
Colour: dark green
Description: As pure layers cm thick and as isolated to radial sprays of crystals to several cm long in a granular quartz-albite matrix.
Reference: Lundgren, Lawrence, Jr. (1979): THE BEDROCK GEOLOGY OF THE HADDAM QUADRANGLE. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut. Quadrangle Report No. 37, pages 9-13.
Antigorite
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Habit: massive
Colour: dark yellowish-green
Description: Described by Dana as occurring at "Oldfield Rock" near Stratford Landing, an place name no longer used and now somewhere between the former Vought (AVCO) plant and the Marine Basin. The outcrop is long covered, but based on descriptions by Percival (1842), was similar to those in Milford, Orange (see http://www.mindat.org/loc-227940.html) and West Haven and represents serpentinized lower oceanic crust.
Reference: Crowley, William Patrick. (1968), Bedrock Geology of the Long Hill and Bridgeport Quadrangles, Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Quadrangle Report No. 24: 45-46.
Antimony ?
Formula: Sb
Habit: broad plates
Description: Reference notes that the validity needs confirmation, but this was apparently either not done of found to be something else (ilmenite?).
Reference: Hitchcock, Edward. (1823). A Sketch of the Geology, Mineralogy, and Scenery of the Regions Contiguous to the River Connecticut. American Journal of Science, s. 1, vol. 6, no. 2, p. 235.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 83.
'Apophyllite'
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Habit: tabular, in spherical aggregates
Colour: white to creamy
Description: Aggregates of tabular crystals can reach 3 to 4 cm. This habit is characteristic for this locality, other area trap rock quarries have bipyramidal crystals.
Reference: Wolfe, C. W. and Vilks, I. (1960): Pseudomorphs after Datolite, Prehnite and Apophyllite from East Granby, Connecticut. Am. Mineral. 45, 443-447.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Aragonite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 33 localities in this region.
Habit: flattened acicular prisms
Colour: colorless to white
Fluorescence: pale yellow-white under LW/MW/SW
Description: Excellent acicular sprays of clear crystals in small cavities on very rusty/earthy goethite in the cores of fault veins, crystals usually micro to 1.5 cm or so.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Arrojadite-(KFe) ?
Formula: (KNa)(Fe2+◻)Ca(Na2◻)Fe2+13Al(PO4)11(PO3OH)(OH)2
Description: reported by Dick Schooner, no details in the reference.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) p.234-5.
Arsenic ?
Formula: As
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Arsenolite ?
Formula: As2O3
Habit: powder
Colour: yellowish
Description: Schooner (1955): "as yellowish powdery incrustations on decomposed arsenopyrite at the Strickland Quarry. One rather large mass of the unusual material was taken out of the pegmatite which adjoins the schist in the cut above the main pit. Pyrite is associated, in all the specimens."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Habit: rectangular prisms
Colour: gray
Description: Usually as aggregates of < 1cm crystals embedded in yellowish matrix.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Schairer (1931)
Arsenopyrite var. Danaite
Formula: (Fe0.90Co0.10)AsS - (Fe0.65Co0.35)AsS
Habit: massive, striated aggregates
Description: The arsenopyrite is not the Co-Ni ore, earlier references to and analyses of "danaite" are probably from confusion with the loellingite ore veins.
Reference: Shannon (1921); Gray (2005)
'Asbestos'
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 98.
'Asbestos var. Mountain Leather'
Habit: fibrous
Colour: white
Description: Fairly thick, white, matted fibers of amphibole or perhaps sepiolite.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Habit: micro radiating clusters, aggregates, druses
Colour: deep green, sky blue
Description: Henderson (1967) reports: deep green crystals of quite variable habit up to 0.5 mm in size. The terminal planes of single crystals were generally bright, while faces in the prism zone were rounded and striated (Fig. 3). It also occurred as radiating groups and in irregular aggregates, sometimes with a single larger crystal perched on top. Druses of atacamite on vesicles were common. It was most frequently found close to or on cuprite, but occasionally appeared to be on malachite. Identification was based on its solubility in dilute hydrochloric and nitric acids, a positive test for halogen, and negative tests for carbonate and sulfate. The atacamite showed parallel extinction and weak birefringence, the two together ruling our malachite, antlerite and brochantite. The mineral was distinguished from paratacamite by its crystal form. On occasion, crystals corresponding to atacamite were found but with a sky blue color. These may well be pseudomorphs of rosasite after atacamite.
Reference: Henderson, William, A., Jr. (1967), A Copper Analog of Laurium, Greece. Rocks & Minerals: 42(5): 273-276.
Augelite
Formula: Al2(PO4)(OH)3
Colour: gray
Description: Specimens of metasomatically altered natromontebrasite, collected at the Strickland quarry around 1950 by Charles Thomas, consist of gray augelite crystals intergrown with pink brazilianite, pink hydroxylapatite, and yellow lacroixite. Very little such material was preserved, and most of it was consumed in study at the U.S. Geological Survey. Natromontebrasite was discredited in 2007, being a mixture of montebrasite, lacroixite, and wardite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985) Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.; Handbook of Mineralogy (http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/lacroixite.pdf)
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 13 localities in this region.
Reference: Meteoritics, vol. 11, June 30, 1976, p. 111-130.
Augite var. Fassaite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe2+,Al,Fe3+,Ti)[(Si,Al)2O6]
Reference: Meteoritics, vol. 11, June 30, 1976, p. 111-130.
Augite var. Titanian Augite
Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Ti, Fe,Al,)(Si,Al)2O6
Reference: Philpotts, Anthony R. and Doreen E. Philpotts. (2007), Upward and downward flow in a camptonite dike as recorded by deformed vesicles and the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research: 161: 81-94.
Aurichalcite
Formula: (Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10-12H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Habit: tabular flakes, coatings
Colour: pale yellow
Fluorescence: bright green
Description: Should be referred to as meta-autunite as all such material is dehydrated. Associated with uraninite and uranophane.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Axinite-(Fe)
Formula: Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OH
Habit: tabular, axe-head shaped
Colour: lavender-brown
Description: "Beautiful groups of tabular crystals, up to an inch across, were associated with prehnite and several other minerals in a small cavity in gneiss. The largest group was almost three inches long. Most of the crystals were colored green by inclusions of chlorite, but some were of a typical lavender-brown tint and quite gemmy. Pseudomorphs of chlorite after axinite were fairly abundant. This is the first reported occurrence of axinite in Connecticut." Schooner (1958) "Groups of simple axe-shaped crystals, up to two inches across, were embedded in loose chlorite, with some admixed clay. The crystals were of two types: lavender-brown, glassy, and without inclusions, and greenish, opaque, and thoroughly impregnated with the chlorite. Some of the smaller examples of the latter kind were pseudomorphs of chlorite after axinite. In all cases, there seemed to be two generations of axinite crystals, differing in size but not in habit. One large crystal had a number of smaller ones clustered on its surfaces." Schooner (1961)
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough).
'Axinite Group' ?
Description: Included in a list copied from Schooner (1958) but with no supporting details. May have occurred in the calc-silicate vein found in the gneissic wall rock.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Habit: Tabular to tapered groups
Colour: Very dark blue
Description: Mostly massive, found in massive quartz with massive chalcocite, malachite, fluorite.
Reference: Jeremy Zolan collection, Harold Moritz collection
Babingtonite
Formula: Ca2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Habit: blocky to wedge-shaped
Colour: black
Description: Crystals to a little over 1 cm, surfaces are mix of smooth and lustrous to rough textures. Commonly associated with prehnite, calcite and quartz.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:398
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 37 localities in this region.
Reference: Hill, J.M. (1917), Barytes and strontium: USGS Min. Resources U.S., 1915, part 2: 161-185; Harte, C.R. (1945), Connecticut's minor metals and her minerals: Connecticut Soc. Civil Engineers 61st. Annual Rept.: 176; Brobst, D.A. (1958), Barite Resources of the United States, USGS Bull. 1072-B: 109 (Table 10); Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Rocks & Min.: 20:518.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Habit: thin, irregular plates
Colour: brown, reddish-brown to yellowish-tan
Description: Irregular thin plates, as much as two or three inches across and a half of an inch thick, are intimately associated with massive allanite, white to greenish plagioclase, pink to purple fluorite, chalcopyrite and pyrite. Some may be altered to gray lanthanite?
Reference: Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995): CONNECTICUT MINERAL LOCALITY INDEX. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue), Volume 70, No. 6, p. 403.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough).; Schooner, Richard. (1961): THE MINERALOGY OF CONNECTICUT.
Bavenite
Formula: Ca4Be2Al2Si9O26(OH)2
Habit: blades, needles, platey, massive, in hemispherical and 2-D radiating aggregates
Colour: white to pale green
Description: probably the best material for the species in Connecticut.
Reference: Henderson, William, A., Jr. (1970): Bavenite From Connecticut. Mineralogical Record, volume 1, no. 2.; Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995): Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue), Vol. 70, No. 6, p. 403.; Yedlin, Neal. (1967). The Micromounter. Rocks and Minerals: 42(11): 840-842.
Bazzite
Formula: Be3Sc2(Si6O18)
Reference: From Richard Schooner collection, now int he Anthony J. Albini collection, personally collected by Richard and analyzed.
Becquerelite
Formula: Ca(UO2)6O4(OH)6 · 8H2O
Habit: pseudomorphs after uraninite
Colour: yellow
Description: "A soft yellow pseudomorph after a uraninite crystal was X-rayed, and proved to be becquerelite." Schooner (circa 1980s).
Reference: Januzzi, R.E. (1976): Mineral Localities Of Connecticut and Southern New York State. p.234.; Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Bementite ?
Formula: Mn7Si6O15(OH)8
Description: Reported by Dick Schooner, reference gives no details.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT & Southeastern NY State, p.229, 234.
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Habit: stains and encrustations
Colour: dark green
Description: Very poorly crystallized in fracture fillings.
Reference: Observations of Januzzi material by Harold Moritz
Bertrandite
Formula: Be4(Si2O7)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 29 localities in this region.
Habit: multiple forms, from simple to complex and as various twins. Usually flattened, elongated, or blocky.
Colour: colorless
Description: Micro-crystals and aggregates in voids left by dissolved beryl crystals. Also part of a suite of micro-minerals pseudomorphing beryl crystals.
Reference: Henderson, William A., Jr. (1975), The Bertrandites of Connecticut. Mineralogical Record: 6(3): 114-123.; Henderson, William A., Jr. (1995), The Microminerals of Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 420-425.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 111 localities in this region.
Habit: elongated hexagonal prisms, terminated with pinacoids and partial pyramids {11bar21}
Colour: yellow, peach, pale green, pink overgrowths on pale green cores, aqua, colorless
Fluorescence: blue-white
Description: Crystals to 2 feet (60 cm) across have been found. Most typical are colorless to pale green or pink overgrowths on pale green cored ("reverse watermelon") crystals, usually less than 15 cm long. Commonly frozen in quartz and associated with fluorapatite, cleavelandite, elbaite. Pocket crystals rare.
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1902 13 : 97-121.; USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Schooner, Richard. (1958) THE MINERALOGY OF THE PORTLAND-EAST HAMPTON-MIDDLETOWN-HADDAM AREA IN CONNECTICUT (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough); Scovil, Jeffrey A. (1992): Famous Mineral Localities: the Gillette Quarry, Haddam Neck, Connecticut. (Mineralogical Record, 23(1):19-28.)
Beryl var. Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Localities: Reported from at least 19 localities in this region.
Habit: hexagonal prisms
Colour: pale blue
Description: Subordinate in quantity to the typical pale green and pink beryl, but gem quality crystals were found and cut. Some highly etched crystals also exist.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958) THE MINERALOGY OF THE PORTLAND-EAST HAMPTON-MIDDLETOWN-HADDAM AREA IN CONNECTICUT (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough); Scovil, Jeffrey A. (1992): Famous Mineral Localities: the Gillette Quarry, Haddam Neck, Connecticut. (Mineralogical Record, 23(1):19-28.)
Beryl var. Emerald
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com
Beryl var. Goshenite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Habit: hexagonal prisms
Colour: colorless
Description: a gem quality flattened crystal 8 cm in diameter retained by Brack family.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:379
Beryl var. Heliodor
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Habit: elongated prisms with partial or complete pyramidal terminations
Colour: yellow
Description: "Beryl occurs in the pegmatite in yellow (“golden”), green, and blue euhedral crystals. In the border zone they range in size from 1/32 to 1/34 inch in diameter and from 1/2 inch to 2 1/2 inches long. Crystals as much as 8 inches in length and 1 inch in diameter occur in the core-margin zone." Cameron et al (1954): USGS Prof Paper 255; "many crystals of golden beryl, sharp in form and of the finest gem quality. Indeed, this is one of the principal heliodor sources in North America. The Little collection, at Harvard University, contains some exceptionally fine clear golden crystals; they were obtained from masses of quartz, many years ago. Similar crystals are in various museums and private collections. Of late, several magnificent specimens of a different type have been recovered. Those are deeply etched, frosty-looking, greenish-golden gem crystals, from cavities along a fault (?) which runs through the lower end of the quarry. The Gallant collection includes a superb crystal, with round¬ed diamond-shaped etch-pits on virtually every surface. It is over two inches long." Schooner (1961).
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 12:145.; USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Schooner (1958 and 1961)
Beryl var. Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Habit: elongated hexagonal prisms, terminated with pinacoids and partial pyramids {11bar21}
Colour: pink, commonly with green cores
Description: Beryl crystals to 2 feet (60 cm) across have been found. Crystals usually less than 15 cm long. Color zoning in large crystals typically consists of colorless to rose externally, with pale green cores. Commonly frozen in quartz and associated with fluorapatite, cleavelandite, elbaite. Some pocket gem material.
Reference: Mineralogical Magazine 1902 13 : 97-121.; USGS Prof Paper 255; Schooner, Richard. (1958) THE MINERALOGY OF THE PORTLAND-EAST HAMPTON-MIDDLETOWN-HADDAM AREA IN CONNECTICUT (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough); Scovil, Jeffrey A. (1992): Famous Mineral Localities: the Gillette Quarry, Haddam Neck, Connecticut. (Mineralogical Record, 23(1):19-28.)
Beyerite ?
Formula: Ca(BiO)2(CO3)2
Description: Reference includes a list of minerals reportedly found by Dick Schooner in a pegmatite in East Hampton, but with no supporting details.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT & SE NY State
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Localities: Reported from at least 60 localities in this region.
Habit: tabular
Colour: black
Description: Mostly as a component of the host metagabbro, but also as euhedral crystals in the open veins to about 1 cm.
Reference: Ague, J. J. (1995): Deep Crustal Growth of Quartz, Kyanite and Garnet into Large-Aperature, fluid-filled fractures, northeastern Connecticut, USA. Journal of Metamorphic Geology: 13: 299-314.
Birnessite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2O
Habit: encrustation
Colour: black
Description: "This is one of the manganese oxides identified as a component of the soft black alteration crusts on tephroite, etc."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Bismite
Formula: Bi2O3
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Habit: plates, or small lamellar masses
Description: "disseminated in a vein of quartz, in brilliant plates, or small lamellar masses, seldom more than an inch in diameter" Robinson (1825)
Reference: Dana 6: 13 & 62; Dana 7:I:606.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:13:20.
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Localities: Reported from at least 21 localities in this region.
Description: Good quality specimens were reported by Dick Schooner in Betts (1999).
Reference: Rocks and Minerals (1999) 74:110-121
Bismutoferrite
Formula: Fe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)
Habit: massive coatings
Colour: green
Description: Associated with bismuthinite and pyrite with secondary bismite, bismutite (some or all may in fact be bismutoferrite) and goethite staining pegmatite matrix.
Reference: Huff, R. C., R. G. Huff, J. Vajdak. (1996), An Occurrence of Bismutoferrite in Portland, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 71(3): 197.; Vajdak, Josef. (1997), New Mineral Finds in 1996, News from Vajdak of Pequa Rare Minerals and Metals. Mineral News: 13:(3): 1,4,5.
Bismutotantalite
Formula: Bi(Ta,Nb)O4
Habit: anhedral
Colour: gray exterior, brown interior
Description: Very small grains to a couple of mm in matrix of albite, muscovite, quartz, elbaite. Analyzed in 2017 by Peter Cristofono and Tom Mortimer.
Reference: Eric Briggs collection
'Bitumen'
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Habit: amorphous
Colour: black
Description: amorphous, vitreous masses with conchoidal fracture
Reference: Collection of Harold Moritz
Bityite
Formula: LiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2
Habit: hexagonal
Colour: white
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) says: "When the Strickland quarry was last active, the author found a boulder of cleavelandite with a small vug of aggregated lustrous white hexagonal-looking crystals with calcite and a trace of lepidolite. It was many years before the mineral was recognized as being a mica! Its unusual X-ray pattern aroused some curiosity, and it was forwarded to Pete J. Dunn at the Smithsonian. He identified it as bityite, and made an analysis by electron microprobe."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
'Bloodstone'
Formula: SiO2
Colour: shades of red
Description: Found as loose rocks in glacial till.
Reference: Orcutt, Rev. Samuel. (1878), History of Torrington, Connecticut. J. Munsell, Albany: 174-179.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Habit: typically dodecahedral, less commonly in cubes showing slight modifications. Most crystals are slightly to severely rounded.
Colour: dull black, with blue patina
Description: Most bornite from Bristol is massive vein material in layers and stringers throughout the vein system, and as rounded blebs in white calcite or on quartz matrix. Crystals rare and specimens not as prevalent as chalcocite.
Reference: Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Jones (2001)
Brazilianite
Formula: NaAl3(PO4)2(OH)4
Colour: pink
Description: Schooner (circa 1985) says: "A few masses of Strickland quarry natromontebrasite, from the pollucite zone in the middle eastern wall, halfway down, are composed of intergrown metasomatic or hydrothermal alterations. Pink brazilianite, containing a trace of Mn (analysis by the USGS), is associated with augelite, lacroixite, and hydroxylapatite. This mineral was collected by Charles Thomas, and studied by Mary E. Mrose. Ronald E. Januzzi had earlier collected material, on the old dumps, in which the brazilianite occurs as confused white aggregates, with hydroxylapatite and possibly morinite." Natromontebrasite was discredited in 2007, being a mixture of montebrasite, lacroixite, and wardite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985) Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.; Handbook of Mineralogy (http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/pdfs/lacroixite.pdf)
Breithauptite ?
Formula: NiSb
Description: No details in reference, all others cite this one.
Reference: Shepard (1864)
'Brewsterite' ?
Description: "as microscopic monoclinic crystals, and as white fibers in a cavity in pyroxene...verified by x-ray diffraction analysis" Pawloski (1965). But questioned by Tschernich (1992).
Reference: Pawloski, John A. (1965): Two Intersting Zeolites from Connecticut. Rocks and Minerals: 40(7): 494.; Tschernich, Rudy W. (1992): Zeolites of the World. Geoscience Press, Phoenix: 85.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Jeremy Zolan Collecton- Specimens Identified by wet chemistry, 2/26/2007.
Brookite
Formula: TiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Description: micros in schist
Reference: Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:397
Brucite ?
Formula: Mg(OH)2
Colour: whitish green
Description: "Amianthus is sometimes nearly as fine as that of Corsica." (Robinson 1825). Uncertain if he was referring to brucite or byssolite.
Reference: Robinson (1825)
Bustamite
Formula: CaMn2+(Si2O6)
Habit: cleavable masses
Colour: light pink
Description: When the author discovered a large lens of spessartine at the Jail Hill quarry, in the 1950s, a few good specimens of pink "rhodonite" were collected. Two different shades were associated differently, one with spessartine and calcite (or dolomite), the other with tephroite and pyrophanite. X-ray and spectrographic tests have shown the lighter pink mineral to be bustamite, and the darker one pyroxmangite. In some cases, bustamite is intimately intergrown with johannsenite (probably an exsolution product).
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
'Calamine'
Reference: Gems and Minerals of America -Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
'Calciomicrolite'
Colour: brown
Description: A single 21mm fragment was analyzed via SEM-EDS and best match is calciomicrolite. Whether this is characteristic of all the abundant micro-crystals posted as "microlite" is uncertain. Zones within it were also analyzed and showed a Ca-Ta oxide with minor Nb (and no Na or Ti)...this could also be microlite, or perhaps calciotantite, which can occur as an inclusion in microlite.
Reference: Adam Berluti collection
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 148 localities in this region.
Habit: scalenohedral, rhombohedral to pseudo-cubic
Colour: colorless, white, pale yellow
Fluorescence: orange-red to pink
Description: Very common in a variety of forms, crystals can reach several cm. Late forming ones perched on prehnite are most prized. Also as thick (to 1 meter or so) fault filling by bands of opaque parallel crystals with phantoms and coatings of hematite.
Reference: Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995): Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 407.; P. Cristofono collection.
Calcite var. Iron-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Fe)CO3
Reference: Rocks & Minerals. Vol. 70. No. 6
Carnotite
Formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Gray 1982
Caryopilite
Formula: Mn2+3Si2O5(OH)4
Description: This was identified (at the University of Michigan) as a very minor component of "ore" from the manganese pod at the Jail Hill quarry in Haddam.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut minerals.
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Colour: dark brownish black
Description: good crystals to 1 cm, can be highly modified, lustrous, microcrystals in cleavelandite
Reference: Scovil, Jeffrey A. (1992): Famous Mineral Localities: the Gillette Quarry, Haddam Neck, Connecticut. (Mineralogical Record, 23(1):19-28.); Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Celadonite
Formula: K(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Habit: tabular
Colour: colorless to very pale blue
Description: Crystals typically small, <1.5 cm.
Reference: John Burnham
Cerite-(Ce) ?
Formula: (Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
Description: Reference includes a list of minerals reportedly found by Dick Schooner in a pegmatite in East Hampton, but with no supporting details.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State, p.234
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Description: micros occur in cavities in cleavelandite associated with altered bismuthinite, pyromorphite and wulfenite
Reference: Januzzi. (1976). Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Januzzi. (1994). Mineral Data Book
'Chabazite'
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Description: good microcrystals can be found together with other zeolites
Reference: Segeler, Curt and Molon, Joseph. (1985), The Thomaston Dam Site, Thomaston, Connecticut; Rocks & Minerals: 60(3): 119-124.
'Chabazite var. Phacolite'
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection, Ex: Marcelle Weber Coll: m1236
Chabazite-Ca
Formula: (Ca,K2,Na2)2[Al2Si4O12]2 · 12H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 10 localities in this region.
Habit: rhombhedral
Colour: pale orange
Description: Confirmed in 2018 via SEM-EDS analyses.
Reference: Garabedian, James A. (1998), Secondary Mineralization of Half-Moon Vesicles in the Mesozoic Basalt of the O&G#2 Quarry, Woodbury, Connecticut. University of Connecticut Master of Science Thesis.; Harold Moritz collection.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Jeremy Zolan Collecton- Specimens Identified 3/30/2007
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 15 localities in this region.
Habit: Orthorhombic crystals, many showing twinning. Some are heavily striated, often show a pseudohexagonal symmetry, and discoidal pseudohexagonal crystals are common. Tabular crystals also occur in abundance. Twinned crystals may be pseudohexagonal, or may b
Colour: metallic bluish-black
Description: Tabular to elongated, usually singly or multiply twinned crystals with a bluish, lustrous metallic luster when fresh, up to 2 or 3 cm long. Usually associated with scalenohedral calcite and/or milky quartz. Crystals gradually gain a black charcoal coating that is easily cleaned by placing them in an agitated alconox solution, which does not harm the crystals or associated minerals.
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Bateman, Alan M. (1923): PRIMARY CHALCOCITE: BRISTOL COPPER MINE CONNECTICUT. Economic Geology, v. 18, pp. 122-166.; Jones, Robert W. (2001): FAMOUS MINERAL LOCALITIES: THE BRISTOL COPPER MINE CONNECTICUT. The Mineralogical Record, Volume 32, pp. 433-450.
'Chalcodite'
Formula: K(Fe3+,Mg,Fe2+)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)27
Reference: R. Zinderman photo
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 99 localities in this region.
Habit: tetrahedral
Colour: Brassy yellow to rainbow iridescence
Description: Typically massive and iridescent, rarely as crystals up to 2 cm or as "blister" habit.
Reference: Jones, Robert W. (2001): Famous Mineral Localities: The Bristol Copper Mine Connecticut. Mineralogical Record: 32(6):433-450.
Chalcopyrite var. Blister Copper
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: MinRec 32:433
'Chlorite Group'
Localities: Reported from at least 66 localities in this region.
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
'Chlorophyllite'
Habit: prismatic
Colour: silvery gray-green
Description: Micaceous alteration of cordierite, the latter crystals up to 8 cm across but typically fragmented into sections along a relict basal cleavage. May not be from this town specifically as the geology is not quite right, noted mainly from Haddam or eastern Litchfield - which is close to Thomaston, which was once part of Plymouth.
Reference: Dana, James D. (1892), Manual of Mineralogy and Petrography. 12th edition. Wiley, New York.; old collection label.
Chondrodite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Description: Included in a list of minerals with no supporting information or specific localities, but it is a common accessory in area marble.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury.
Chromite
Formula: Fe2+Cr3+2O4
Reference: Meteoritics, vol. 11, June 30, 1976, p. 111-130.
Chrysoberyl
Formula: BeAl2O4
Habit: Typically flat, striated, cyclic twins, sometimes fully 6-sided.
Colour: yellow-green, pale green
Description: First locality where it was found in-situ. Intensely studied in the 19th century - crystal drawings are in Dana's System of Mineralogy and Goldschmidt's Atlas der Krystallformen. Shepard (1837) writes: "occurs in large distinct crystals, simple and compound (see fig. 136 of my Mineralogy) as well as massive". Crystals reached up to about 7.5 cm across, typically translucent but not gemmy.
Reference: Webster, J. W. (1820), Localities of minerals, observed principally in Haddam, in Connecticut, in September, 1819. American Journal of Science: s. 1: 2: 239; Shepard, Charles U. (1837): Report on the Geological Survey of Connecticut. Hamlem, New Haven.
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Localities: Reported from at least 20 localities in this region.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
'Chrysoprase'
Colour: apple green
Description: Found as loose rocks in glacial till.
Reference: Orcutt, Rev. Samuel. (1878), History of Torrington, Connecticut. J. Munsell, Albany: 174-179.
Chrysotile
Formula: Mg3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 89.
Churchite-(Y)
Formula: Y(PO4) · 2H2O
Habit: colloform with concentric layers
Colour: pale yellow-white
Description: Thin colloform crust on goethite with an associated opal-AN-like layer. In Januzzi (1994) the discoverer states, "Recent examination, by way of x-ray and semi-quantitative analysis uncovered a new species for the Scoville Ore Bed in Salisbury, Connecticut; the mineral churchite, a relatively inconspicuous species and confused (no doubt often) with rhabdophane and probably more common than realized. Florencite should be looked for when churchite occurs in a deposit of this type. A hyalite-like mineral evidently forming before churchite lies just beneath it (the specimen is in the author’s collection)-this species is very possibly evansite."
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994), Mineral Data Book. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury.
Claudetite ?
Formula: As2O3
Description: According to an unconfirmed report by Schooner (circa 1980s), associated with arsenopyrite were "a few soft, transparent, gypsum-like plates" of claudetite.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 23 localities in this region.
Habit: hemispherical aggregates of tabular crystals
Colour: dark green to black
Reference: P Cristofono collection, 2008
Clinochlore var. Diabantite ?
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8
Colour: Deep green
Description: Filling small cavities, this mineral may actually be pumpellyite, which is now known to be common in the local traprock, but there were few quarries in that rock in 1920.
Reference: Shannon, Earl V. (1920), The Trap Quarry at Meriden, Connecticut. The American Mineralogist: 5(2):34.
Clinochlore var. Ripidolite
Formula: (Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
Habit: fine anhedral grains
Colour: dark green
Description: Forms fine-grained masses at the contact between the quartz mass and the host schist.
Reference: American Museum of Natural History display
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Description: In the host metamorphic rocks.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State (Taylor Assoc./Mineralogical Press).
Clinozoisite var. Clinothulite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Habit: granular
Colour: pink
Description: Granular material in quartz, with calc-silicate minerals in the amphibolite. Clinozoisite is much more common than zoisite and more likely a mineral to occur in this metamorphic terrain.
Reference: Eric Briggs collection
Cobaltite
Formula: CoAsS
Description: Microcrystals.
Reference: David Busha specimen
Coffinite
Formula: U(SiO4) · nH2O
Reference: Gray 1982
Columbite-(Fe)
Formula: Fe2+Nb2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Habit: tabular to elongated prisms
Colour: black with yellow, blue to purple iridescence
Description: As small pocket crystals to large subhedral masses in the intermediate plagioclase-quartz mineralized zone. Schooner (1958): "innumerable specimens, including well developed crystals up to three or four inches across; heavy aggregates of parallel tabular crystals in cleavelandite were abundant when the locality was active in 1953."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Localities: Reported from at least 43 localities in this region.
Habit: flat, elongated prisms or subhedral masses
Colour: black, with iridescence
Description: Good prismatic crystals formed in quartz, also hand-sized subhedral masses with striations from neighboring muscovite. Januzzi (1976) reports that a beryl crystal with a large columbite crystal projecting from it was donated to the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. The ID is generic, at least one crystal was tested using Raman spectroscopy and the best match is tantalite-(Fe) (see entry). A crystal formerly in the Bill Shelton collection has a specific gravity of 6.7, making it clearly a columbite species.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.; Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan (1995), Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 396.
'Columbite Group'
Habit: tabular
Colour: black with iridescence
Description: Subhedral crystals in pegmatite matrix.
Reference: Former Ronald Januzzi collection
'Columbite-(Mn)-Tantalite-(Mn) Series'
Habit: rectangular prisms
Colour: dark reddish to reddish brown
Description: Columbite-tantalite crystals with reddish color and some translucency have been historically called tantalite-(Mn) without supporting analyses (even SG) but visually could equally be columbite-(Mn). Strong illumination is typically needed to see the color and translucency. Most are small (<1 cm) and embedded in matrix.
Reference: Former Richard Schooner collection
'Columbite-Tantalite'
Description: "Incidentally, a magnificent columbite-tantalite crystal was also found in the pegmatite in 1974." Brunet (1978).
Reference: Brunet, William. (1978), Heterosite-Purpurite Locality in Connecticut. Rocks and Minerals: 53(2): 63.
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Habit: micro-globular aggregates, masses, pseudomorphs after spodumene
Colour: pale yellow
Description: Typically as tiny spheres of crystal aggregates with K-rich albite, micas, elbaite, quartz, calcite, pyrite, fluorite, and bertrandite in cleavelandite of the mineralized intermediate plagioclase-quartz zone. Rare pseudomorphs of spodumene. Schooner (1955) says: "solid masses of bright yellow fine-grained material. Some pieces were seen to be as much as 4 or 5 inches thick, the mineral having occurred as a lining in a long cavity or series of cavities."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: Schairer, J. F. (1931), The Minerals of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Hartford Connecticut Bulletin 51 Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
'Copiapite Group'
Reference: Kevin Czaja Collection
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Habit: massive
Colour: Coated with green malachite.
Description: A few very large nuggets found in glacial till or attached to arkosic bedrock. The largest was found in 1870 0.5 mile north of East Rock and weighed about 200 pounds (90 kg).
Reference: Yale Peabody Museum collection.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Habit: Anhedral to blocky
Colour: gray-green to violet
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:403; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Habit: hexagonal tabular
Colour: pale lavender
Description: A 2 cm, tabular, hexagonal crystal is present in a cabinet specimen of kyanite at Harvard that was part of Brace's large boulder.
Reference: Harvard Mineralogical Museum specimen
Corundum var. Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Habit: hexagonal prisms
Colour: dark blue
Description: embedded in kyanite, vary in size from micro to megascopic.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1994): Mineral Data Book - Western Connecticut and Environs. Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Conn.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:403
Crandallite ?
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Description: Schooner (1955) reports it "as microscopic crystals associated with bertrandite" found by Gunnar Bjareby. However, he does not mention it in any of his subsequent writings on the area.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Cronstedtite
Formula: Fe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4
Habit: radial groups of flattened crystals
Colour: greenish-brown to almost black
Description: A drab greenish-brown to almost black mineral, abundantly associated with grunerite, siderite, and marcasite, was identified as chamosite. Careful restudy of X-ray data indicates cronstedtite as a better fit.
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Habit: botryoidal
Colour: black with blue tint
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Cummingtonite
Formula: ☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 17 localities in this region.
Reference: Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
Cuprite var. Chalcotrichite
Formula: Cu2O
Habit: acicular
Reference: Henderson, William, A., Jr. (1967), A Copper Analog of Laurium, Greece. Rocks & Minerals: 42(5): 273-276.
Cuprobismutite
Formula: Cu8AgBi13S24
Habit: massive, coatings
Description: Associated with bismuthinite and pyrite with secondary bismite, bismutite (some or all may in fact be bismutoferrite) and goethite staining pegmatite matrix.
Reference: Vajdak, Josef. (1997), New Mineral Finds in 1996, News from Vajdak of Pequa Rare Minerals and Metals. Mineral News: 13:(3): 1,4,5.
'Cymatolite'
Habit: pseudomorphs after spodumene
Colour: white to pale gray
Description: oriented intergrowth of very fine-grained, elongated albite and muscovite. Grains are oriented perpendicular to the spodumene c axis and give a columnar, silky appearance to the inside of a fractured specimen. Crystals pseudomorphs after spodumene at Yale to 32 x 70 cm.
Reference: Brush and Dana (1880); Shainin, V., 1946, The Branchville Pegmatite, American Mineralogist, v. 31, p. 329-345.; USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Danburite (TL)
Formula: CaB2Si2O8
Reference: Shepard, C.U. (1939) Amer J of Sci; Shepard, C.U. (1840): Der Danburit, eine neue Mineralspecies, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 126 (2/050), p. 182
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Habit: complex prisms with chisel-point terminations
Colour: pale apple green
Description: Gas vesicles rich in crystals lining the walls were once abundant. Never found singly. Crystals can reach over 2.5 cm, larger ones typically transparent, smaller crystals translucent to opaque - grading to porcelaineous crusts. Excellent specimens in major museums.
Reference: Wolfe, C. W. and Vilks, I. (1960): Pseudomorphs after Datolite, Prehnite and Apophyllite from East Granby, Connecticut. Am. Mineral. 45, 443-447.
Davidite-(La)
Formula: La(Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38
Habit: subhedral
Colour: pitch black
Description: Small 1-2 cm obsidian-black subhedral crystals with red staining in adjacent rock.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:64:471.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Devilline
Formula: CaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
Reference: David Busha collection SEM_EDS by Kaygeedee Minerals
Diadochite
Formula: Fe3+2(PO4)(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Habit: coatings and micro globules
Colour: orange
Description: Orange coatings on triphylite, messelite, and other related phosphates
Reference: Schooner (1961); Januzzi (1976) p. 234.
Diamond
Formula: C
Habit: cubic
Colour: grey
Description: Single alluvial crystal 0.8mm
Reference: Jarnot, Bruce and Jarnot, Miranda (2004): "Gem Almandine from Colchester, Connecticut," in: abstracts of the 31st Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 15-18, 2004, pp 13-14.
Diaspore
Formula: AlO(OH)
Habit: thin or 6-sided tables flattened parallel to the shorter diagonal
Colour: yellowish-white
Description: First reported by Shepard (1842) as euclase forming "thin, transparent, yellowish-white tabular crystals, lining cavities in a silvery white mica, and sometimes imbedded in a dark purple fluor" in the topaz veins. Later retracted and confirmed to be diaspore by Shepard (1851) and Dana (1851): H=7-7.5, SG=3.29, alumina 84.9%, water 15.1% and described as "thin or 6-sided tables flattened parallel to the shorter diagonal". May be more common than reported because who has really looked?
Reference: Shepard, Charles U. (1842): On Washingtonite (a New Mineral), the Discovery of Euclase in Connecticut, and Additional Notices of the Supposed Phenakite of Goshen, and Calstron-baryte of Schoharie, N. Y. American Journal of Science: 43: 364.; Dana, James D. (1851): Mineralogical Notices: Diaspore. American Journal of Science: s. 2: 12: 215.; Shepard, Charles U. (1851): Title unknown. Proceedings of the 4th Meeting, American Association for the Advancement of Science: 319.
Dickinsonite-(KMnNa) (TL)
Formula: (KNa)(Mn2+◻)Ca(Na2Na)Mn2+13Al(PO4)11(PO4)(OH)2
Habit: foliated crystalline masses, almost micaceous, radiating or stellated curved laminae
Colour: oil to olive green, dark to grass-green
Description: Intimately associated with quartz, eosphorite, triploidite and rhodochrosite
Reference: Brush and Dana (1878).; Shainin, V. (1946) The Branchville, Connecticut, Pegmatite. American Mineralogist: 31: 329-345.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 671, 718, 855.; Moore, P.B., Ito, J. (1979) Alluaudites, wyllieites, arrojadites: crystal chemistry and nomenclature. Mineralogical Magazine: 43: 227-235.; Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan (1995) Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6) (November/December): 396-409.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15 (referring to Moore & Ito, 1979).
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 70:398
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Reference: MinRec 32:433
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Localities: Reported from at least 42 localities in this region.
Habit: flattened short to elongated prisms
Colour: white to very pale green
Fluorescence: light blue-gray under SW
Description: pseudomorphed by tremolite (originally called Canaanite)
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Diopside var. Canaanite
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: Schairer, John Frank (1931): The Minerals of Connecticut, State Geological and Natural History Survey Bulletin 51
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: Harvard Museum of Natural History specimen no. 81791
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 31 localities in this region.
Habit: rhombohedral, some curved
Colour: white, pink, tan, brown if iron-rich
Description: Abundant as fault vein filling associated with barite, quartz, bitumen. Crystals usually drusy.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Dolomite var. Iron-bearing Dolomite
Formula: Ca(Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
Habit: curved rhombohedra
Colour: brown
Description: grades into tan normal dolomite, surfaces commonly etched
Reference: Gray (1982)
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Habit: short to elongated (along c axis) prisms with simple rhombohedral terminations, often doubly.
Colour: black
Description: In schist outcrop over 100 meters from the Biermann quarry and not related to it.
Reference: Januzzi (1976) p. 172
'Dravite-Schorl Series'
Habit: short prismatic, doubly-terminated by rhombohedrons
Colour: dark brown to black
Description: Described in Dana and Brush (1875) as "perfect dark brown crystals in mica-slate...sometimes to two inches in length and breadth." These dark brown to black crystals are sometimes referred to in old literature as dravite, though that identification is unconfirmed. Certainly somewhere in the dravite-schorl solid solution series.
Reference: Labels from Earl Sullivan collection; Dana, James D. (1875), A System of Mineralogy. Fifth edition. Wiley & sons, New York: 369.
Dumortierite ?
Formula: (Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3
Habit: acicular
Colour: bright blue
Description: A few concentrations of tiny acicular crystals in one specimen of coarse-grained albite/quartz/biotite gneiss matrix.
Reference: Former Ronald Januzzi collection
'Elaterite'
Formula: (C,H,O,S)
Reference: Williamson, 1932. Book of Amber, p.254.
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Habit: Elongated trigonal prisms, antilogous pole terminated with rhombohedral pyramids {1bar11}, analgous pole dominated by a pedion.
Colour: prisms mostly green, blue-green, rarely pink. Terms. green, yellow, pink, blue, combinations
Description: Hundreds of crystals in some pockets, often "piercing" smoky quartz. Flawless crystals are rare; usually fractured. Large pocket crystals vary but are usually striated to silky, slender and elongated, from small needles up to 30 cm, but typically a few cm long. Color zoning is usually longitudinal, short and terminal in shades of green, pink, golden yellow and blue with up to 5 colors. Antilogous poles typically pale green, yellow, pink; analogous poles usually colorless, pale green, aqua. w/thin indigo cap, or sometimes with a narrow pale colored zone immediately beneath and parallel to the pedion. Tiny crystals may be any color throughout. Concentric “watermelon” zoning is not common. Some fragments of green prisms are overgrown by later pink zones. Also found frozen in matrix with beryl, fluorapatite, fluorite, muscovite, smoky quartz, lepidolite, microlite, columbite.
Reference: Davis, James W. (1901): The Minerals of Haddam, Conn. Mineral Collector, v. 8, no. 4, pp. 50-54, and no. 5, pp. 65-70.; Bowman, H. L. (1902): On an Occurrence of Minerals at Haddam Neck, Connecticut, USA. Mineralogical Magazine, 13 (no. 60), 97-22.; Scovil, Jeffrey A. (1992): Famous Mineral Localities: the Gillette Quarry, Haddam Neck, Connecticut. (Mineralogical Record, 23(1):19-28.)
Enstatite
Formula: Mg2Si2O6
Description: Enstatite (sensu stricto) — [En 91.5] within xenolith, Wagner et al.,1979
Reference: Meteoritics, vol. 11, June 30, 1976, p. 111-130.; Wagner, J. K., Cohen, A. J., Hapke, B. W., & Partlow, W. D. (1979) Vacuum ultraviolet reflectance spectra of group H chondrites:In: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference X, Proceedings, Vol 2: pp. 1797-1818. New York: Pergamon Press, Inc. (March 1979).
Enstatite var. Bronzite
Formula: (Mg,Fe2+)2[SiO3]2
Reference: Meteoritics, vol. 11, June 30, 1976, p. 111-130.
Eosphorite (TL)
Formula: Mn2+Al(PO4)(OH)2 · H2O
Habit: mostly massive, rare prismatic crystals
Colour: pale pink, grayish-, bluish-, and yellowish-white, white
Description: Intimately associated with quartz, dickinsonite, triploidite and rhodochrosite. Pink, translucent, prismatic crystals to around 1 cm long show rough striae parallel to the long axis, associated with micro encrusting quartz and apatite.
Reference: Brush and Dana (1878); American Mineralogist (1946): 31: 329-345; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 671, 718, 855, 938.; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 56 localities in this region.
Habit: prismatic
Colour: yellow-green to dark green to black
Description: drusy crystals in fractures in gneiss, crystallized in two generations, an initial one with elongated, larger and darker crystals and a second one of much finer-grained, short and lighter colored crystals. The second generation coats the first and some other minerals like quartz.
Reference: Harvard Mineralogical Museum No. 119199; Former Ed Force collection.
Epidote var. Tawmawite
Formula: {Ca2}{(Al,Fe3+,Cr)3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Description: A completely unsubstantiated guess.
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. and David Seaman (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
Epistilbite
Formula: CaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2O
Reference: Tschernich, 1992. Zeolites of the World, p.154
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Habit: efflorescence
Description: Schooner (1958): "occurs very sparingly with pickeringite, in efflorescences on protected schist ledges in the cut above the Strickland Quarry. It is distinguished from pickeringite by its different taste… the same as that of artificial Epsom salt."
Reference: Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
Erythrite
Formula: Co3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Habit: earthy incrustation or delicate needles
Colour: red
Description: Formed from the weathering of Co-rich loellingite. "Eugene Franckfort reported that the face of one lode, opened more than a century ago, was covered with, abundant erythrite crystals… as fine as any which he had seen in his native Europe." (Schooner 1958). "The Francfort mineral collection [at Wesleyan University] contains some excellent samples of erythrite from Bucks Shaft" (Gray 2005). It was common during the mining, but very scarce now. A small flake was tested in concentrated HCl and it turned the solution blue, indicating erythrite.
Reference: Schooner (1958); Gray (2005)
Euclase ?
Formula: BeAl(SiO4)(OH)
Colour: colorless
Description: Etched, elongated microcrystals with rhombic cross-section and wedge-shaped terminations. With secondary quartz and cookeite coating a pocket quartz.
Reference: Harold Moritz collection
Eucryptite (TL)
Formula: LiAlSiO4
Habit: pseudomorphous after spodumene
Colour: white to slightly greenish-white or pale gray
Fluorescence: red
Description: oriented intergrowth with very fine-grained, elongated albite. Grains are oriented perpendicular to the spodumene c axis and give an indistinct fibrous to columnar structure, this being always at right angles to the adjoining surface of the original mineral. Fractured surface typically has a frosty appearance.
Reference: Brush and Dana (1880); AmMin 31:329-345 (1946); USGS Prof Paper 255; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409; Ronald Januzzi collection
Euxenite-(Y)
Formula: (Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6
Description: Reference by Januzzi (1976) to this mineral being found by Schooner in "Portland" correlates only with a report by Schooner (circa 1985) from the Hale Quarry in Portland. Schooner makes no mention if it from Strickland in his various comprehensive publications, especially his last, Schooner (circa 1985).
Reference: Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State (Taylor Assoc./Mineralogical Press): 234-5.