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Lake Rotokawa, Wairakei, Taupo District, Waikato Region, New Zealandi
Regional Level Types
Lake RotokawaLake
Wairakei- not defined -
Taupo DistrictDistrict
Waikato RegionRegion
New ZealandCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
38° 37' 28'' South , 176° 11' 30'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Köppen climate type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Taupo22,469 (2017)11.4km
Reporoa595 (2017)24.7km


A 20,000 year old volcanic area actively depositing gold, etc from hydrothermal solutions. Approximately 250 kg of gold have been deposited in the last 1,800 years. Acid lake with pH ~ 2.

Lake Rotokawa is off the tourist trail, and is one of those areas locals visit. Sulphur mining occurred here from the 1960's to 1980's. The area is now a conservation reserve managed by the Department of Conservation, and the local Maori tribe. Permission to collect can only be given by these groups, and is usually reserved for the occasional mineral symposium visit. Specimens on Mindat were either collected during or shortly after the mining period, and before the reserve was declared, or during a permitted organised visit. Some areas are off limits totally due to their intrinsic value, beauty, or geological interest. The geothermal area has unique flora and fauna, including a leech, and algal stromatolites. There are no safety measures here, and we are obliged to warn falling into boiling hot water and/or mud is not good for health reasons.

The area contains a sequence of Pleistocene and recent volcanic rocks, underlain by a greywacke basement. A younger rhyolite tephra covers the surface. There are at least twelve eruption breccias preserved in outcrop, from several craters, the largest 1.5 kilometres across, partly filled with the acidic Lake Rotowara. (Krupp, et. al, 1987) claims the geothermal area has the highest concentrations of bedded sulphur for a geothermal area studied at that time, and the highest gold concentrations produced by a geothermal area in New Zealand.

The lake bubbles and steams from underwater springs, while to the north-east of the lake are a number of small craters, hot springs, mud pools, fumaroles etc. A terrace-like sinter deposit has developed along the north-east shore of the lake. Hot springs erupt from a number of north-east to south-west trending fractures, which merge at depth to join one of two local buried ring fractures as part of the Maroa caldera.

Hydrothermal alteration shows in a propylitic zone at depth, and shallower argillic zone. Sulphides sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite and argentite are found as sporadic grains, with more pervasive pyrite. Gold rich fluids are rising to under the lake, and along the north-east shoreline, amounting to approximately 8000 ounces deposited over the last 1800 years, and about another 12 million ounces still under the crater. Gold specimens of any sort are not seen.

Layered green, yellow and grey muds discharging are rich in gold, arsenic, antimony, with high concentrations also of tungsten, thallium, mercury, silver, and gallium. The muds contain well crystallised kaolinite books, sulphur, alunite, silica, and rare realgar crystals. Various hots springs along the nearby Parariki Stream and Waikato River are lined with bright yellow and orange precipitates, and stock-work like silica veins, with fractures containing orange, red and yellow antimony sulphides as pigment, some orpiment, and realgar crystals to 1 mm. Bright red cinnabar may form coatings on fumaroles.

The breccias contain quartz with hyalite collected in the past, kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, alunite, albite crystals in cavities, epidote, clinozoisite, adularia, rare pyrrhotite and radiating sprays of an allanite like mineral, botryoidal monazite, clots of Fe and Mn rich chlorite, wairakite veins at depth, framboidal iron masses, and frequently veined with silica and calcite. Apatite is honey-yellow specks to 1 mm, while titanomagnetite, barite, anatase, pyrite, and marcasite listed is usually grain sized.

The area is known for sulphur crystal specimens, found in the former mining pit, and sulphur 'blows' nearby. The sulphur deposit is saucer shaped, up to 17 metres thick, containing 17 million tonnes of ore grade sulphur (at a 10% sulphur cut-off). A series of rhyolitic pumice eruptions 1800 years ago, in the Taupo area severely curtailed the amount of new sulphur being added to the deposit. Rosickyite photographs are on Mindat, being an uncommon species, and not found elsewhere in New Zealand.

Regions containing this locality

North Island, New ZealandIsland

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


40 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Chambefort, I.; McCoy-West, A.J.; Ramirez, L.E.; Rae, A.J.; Bignall, G. 2011 Evidence for magmatic fluid pulses into the Rotokawa geothermal system. paper 40 (7 p.) In: NZ Geothermal Workshop, 21-23 November 2011, Auckland : workshop programme. Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 33.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Some argentiferous
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages. Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages. Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Arsenic
Formula: As
Reference: Unpublished drill log report to NZ Dept of Mines by sulphur mining operator
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: Chambefort, I., McCoy-West, A.J., Ramirez, L.E., Rae, A.J., Bignall, G. (2011) Evidence for magmatic fluid pulses into the Rotokawa geothermal system. paper 40 (7 p.) In: NZ Geothermal Workshop, 21-23 November 2011, Auckland : workshop programme. Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 33.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
'Charcoal'
Formula: C
Description: With native sulphur from solfatara.
Reference: Judy Rowe and Dave Blakemore specimens
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Cinnabar
Formula: HgS
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages. Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
'Clinoptilolite'
Reference: Collar, R.J., Browne, P.R.L. (1985) Hydrothermal eruptions at the Rotokawa Geothermal Field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Proceedings of 7th NZ Geothermal Workshop.
Clinozoisite
Formula: {Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Unpublished drill log report to NZ Dept of Mines by sulphur mining operator
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Collection of RJ Martin
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
'Heulandite subgroup'
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Collar, R.J., Browne, P.R.L. (1985) Hydrothermal eruptions at the Rotokawa Geothermal Field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Proceedings of 7th NZ Geothermal Workshop.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Leucoxene
Reference: Collar, R.J., Browne, P.R.L. (1985) Hydrothermal eruptions at the Rotokawa Geothermal Field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Proceedings of 7th NZ Geothermal Workshop.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Magnetite var: Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Meta-alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Metavoltine
Formula: Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
'Monazite'
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Mordenite
Formula: (Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Rae, A.J. (2007) Rotokawa geology and geophysics. GNS Science consultancy report 2007/83. Confidential Report. 11 pages.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Rae, A.J. (2007) Rotokawa geology and geophysics. GNS Science consultancy report 2007/83. Confidential Report. 11 pages.
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Unpublished drill log report to NZ Dept of Mines by sulphur mining operator.
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Rae, A.J. (2007) Rotokawa geology and geophysics. GNS Science consultancy report 2007/83. Confidential Report, 11 pages.
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Opal var: Opal-AN
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: Rod Martin personal collection
Orpiment
Formula: As2S3
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Quartz var: Agate
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Realgar
Formula: As4S4
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Rosickýite
Formula: S
Reference: Unpublished drill log report to NZ Dept of Mines by sulphur mining operator.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Rae, A.J. (2007) Rotokawa geology and geophysics. GNS Science consultancy report 2007/83. Confidential Report, 11 pages.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Wairakite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Reference: Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand: An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Arsenic1.CA.05As
Rosickýite1.CC.05S
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Cinnabar2.CD.15aHgS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Orpiment2.FA.30As2S3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Realgar2.FA.15aAs4S4
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var: Titaniferous Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
var: Opal-AN4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Agate4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Meta-alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
Metavoltine7.DF.35Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Natroalunite7.BC.10NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Clinozoisite9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Mordenite9.GD.35(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Nontronite9.EC.40Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Wairakite9.GB.05Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Charcoal'-C
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinoptilolite'-
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Leucoxene-
'Monazite'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Arsenic1.3.1.1As
Rosickýite1.3.5.2S
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Cinnabar2.8.14.1HgS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Realgar2.8.21.1As4S4
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Orpiment2.11.1.1As2S3
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AmBn(XO4)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 3:2 and > 1:1
Metavoltine29.4.6.1Na6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Meta-alunogen29.8.7.1Al2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Clinozoisite58.2.1a.4{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Nontronite71.3.1a.3Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Mordenite77.1.6.1(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Wairakite77.1.1.3Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Allanite Group'-{A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Charcoal'-C
'Chlorite Group'-
'Clinoptilolite'-
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Leucoxene-
Magnetite
var: Titaniferous Magnetite
-Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
'Monazite'-
Natroalunite-NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Opal
var: Opal-AN
-SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz
var: Agate
-SiO2
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
H Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
H NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C CharcoalC
OOxygen
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
O AnataseTiO2
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O BaryteBaSO4
O CalciteCaCO3
O Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
O Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O QuartzSiO2
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
O WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
O NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
NaSodium
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Na Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Na NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Na NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
AlAluminium
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
Al Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Al WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Al NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
SiSilicon
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Allanite Group{A12+REE3+}{M23+M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Opal (var: Opal-AN)SiO2 · nH2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S CinnabarHgS
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
S AcanthiteAg2S
S BaryteBaSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S GalenaPbS
S MarcasiteFeS2
S MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
S OrpimentAs2S3
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S RealgarAs4S4
S SphaleriteZnS
S SulphurS8
S NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S RosickýiteS
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
K Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Clinozoisite{Ca2}{Al3}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2O
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ti Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe MetavoltineNa6K2FeFe6(SO4)12O2 · 18H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Fe NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As OrpimentAs2S3
As RealgarAs4S4
As ArsenicAs
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
HgMercury
Hg CinnabarHgS
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Collar, R.J., Browne, P.R.L. (1985) Hydrothermal eruptions at the Rotokawa Geothermal Field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Proceedings of 7th NZ Geothermal Workshop.
Krupp, R.E., Seward, T.M. (1987) The Rotokawa Geothermal System, New Zealand; An Active Epithermal Gold-Depositing Environment. Economic Geology 82:5, 1109-1129.
Hosking, T. (1989) Micromount symposium field trip sulphur mine Lake Rotowara (Otago Rock and Mineral Club website).
Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Rae, A.J. (2007) Rotokawa geology and geophysics. GNS Science consultancy report 2007/83. Confidential Report, 11 pages.
The Mineralogical Society of Queensland Inc newsletter (2007) The Ercikssons recollections of the combined Oct 7 meetings-part 2 30th Joint Seminar of the Mineralogical Societies of Australia, Waihi Beach North Island New Zealand, No. 50, November 2007.
Otago Rock and Mineral Club, Rotokawa Sulphur Mine Taupo Area PDF, (Otago Rock and Mineral Club website).


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