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Whakaari (White Island), Bay of Plenty Region, New Zealandi
Regional Level Types
Whakaari (White Island)Island
Bay of Plenty RegionRegion
New ZealandCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
37° 31' 7'' South , 177° 10' 56'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Other Languages:
French:
White Island, baie de l'Abondance, Nouvelle-Zélande
German:
White Island, Bay of Plenty, Neuseeland
Italian:
Whakaari/White Island, Bay of Plenty, Nuova Zelanda
Maori:
Te Puia o Whakaari, Te Moana-a-Toi, Aotearoa
Russian:
Уайт-Айленд, Бей-оф-Пленти, Новая Зеландия
Simplified Chinese:
白島 , 普伦蒂湾大区, 新西兰
Spanish:
Isla Whakaari, Bay of Plenty, Nueva Zelanda
Catalan:
White Island, Bay of Plenty, Nova Zelanda
Czech:
Whakaari/White Island, Bay of Plenty, Nový Zéland
Dutch:
White Island, Bay of Plenty, Nieuw-Zeeland
Esperanto:
Blanka Insulo, Regiono Golfo de Abundo, Nov-Zelando
Galician:
Illa Whakaari / White, Nova Zelandia
Greek:
Νήσος Χουάιτ , Μπέι οφ Πλέντι, Νέα Ζηλανδία
Hebrew:
האי וייט, ביי אוף פלנטי, ניו זילנד
Japanese:
ホワイト島 , ベイ・オブ・プレンティ, ニュージーランド
Korean:
와카아리/화이트 섬, 베이오브플렌티 지방, 뉴질랜드
Macedonian:
Бел Остров, Залив Пленти, Нов Зеланд
Polish:
White, Bay of Plenty, Nowa Zelandia
Slovak:
White Island, Nový Zéland


An uninhabited island with an area of approximately 800 acres. White Island, is regarded as one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes and is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 kms offshore of North Island.

The island was in a state of frequent eruptions from 1976 to 2000.

The 321 metre high island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall.

Volckner Rocks, four sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NNE of White Island. Intermittent moderate phreatomagmatic and strombolian eruptions have occurred at White Island throughout the short historical period beginning in 1826, but its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. Formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries has produced rapid changes in crater floor topography.

Sulphur mining was carried out from 1885 but ceased in 1914 when a crater wall collapsed and produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and resulted in the deaths of ten mine workers at the sulfur-mining project.

The volcano erupted again on 9 December 2019 causing further loss of life (21 as of 31 January 2020 after two previously classed as missing are now presumed dead) and 26 other people suffered horrendous burns and injuries (many life threatening).

Not to be confused with White Island off the coast of Dunedin in the South Island.


Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


21 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Akaganeite
Formula: (Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Reference: Johnston, J. H. (1977) Jarosite and akaganéite from White Island Volcano, New Zealand: an X-ray and Mossbauer study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 41:4, 539-544. Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Hedenquist, J.W., Simmons, S.F., Giggenbach, W.F., Stewart Eldridge, C. (1993) White Island, New Zealand, volcanic-hydrothermal system represents the geochemical environment of high-sulfidation Cu and Au ore deposition. Geology, 21(8), 731-734.; R. H. Clark , J. W. Cole , I. A. Nairn & C. P. Wood (1979) Magmatic eruption of White Island volcano, New Zealand, December 1976–April 1977, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:2, 175-190,
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages. Hedenquist, J.W., Simmons, S.F., Giggenbach, W.F., Stewart Eldridge, C. (1993) White Island, New Zealand, volcanic-hydrothermal system represents the geochemical environment of high-sulfidation Cu and Au ore deposition. Geology, 21(8), 731-734.
Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages. Hedenquist, J.W., Simmons, S.F., Giggenbach, W.F., Stewart Eldridge, C. (1993) White Island, New Zealand, volcanic-hydrothermal system represents the geochemical environment of high-sulfidation Cu and Au ore deposition. Geology, 21(8), 731-734.
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Hedenquist, J.W., Simmons, S.F., Giggenbach, W.F., Stewart Eldridge, C. (1993) White Island, New Zealand, volcanic-hydrothermal system represents the geochemical environment of high-sulfidation Cu and Au ore deposition. Geology, 21(8), 731-734.
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Enstatite
Formula: Mg2Si2O6
Reference: J. W. COLE, T. THORDARSON, R. M. BURT, Magma Origin and Evolution of White Island (Whakaari) Volcano, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, Journal of Petrology, Volume 41, Issue 6, June 2000, Pages 867–895,
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Cole, J.W., Thordarson, T., Burt, R.M. (2000) Magma Origin and Evolution of White Island (Whakaari) Volcano, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Journal of Petrology, 41(6), 867-895.; J. W. COLE, T. THORDARSON, R. M. BURT, Magma Origin and Evolution of White Island (Whakaari) Volcano, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, Journal of Petrology, Volume 41, Issue 6, June 2000, Pages 867–895,
Ferrosilite
Formula: FeSiO3
Reference: J. W. COLE, T. THORDARSON, R. M. BURT, Magma Origin and Evolution of White Island (Whakaari) Volcano, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, Journal of Petrology, Volume 41, Issue 6, June 2000, Pages 867–895,
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: White Island. Hamilton and Baumgart, 1959. DSIR Bull. 127
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: White Island. Hamilton and Baumgart, 1959. DSIR Bull. 127
'Hypersthene'
Formula: (Mg,Fe)SiO3
Reference: Hedenquist, J.W., Simmons, S.F., Giggenbach, W.F., Stewart Eldridge, C. (1993) White Island, New Zealand, volcanic-hydrothermal system represents the geochemical environment of high-sulfidation Cu and Au ore deposition. Geology, 21(8), 731-734.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498. Johnston, J. H. (1977) Jarosite and akaganéite from White Island Volcano, New Zealand: an X-ray and Mossbauer study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 41:4, 539-544.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: R. H. Clark , J. W. Cole , I. A. Nairn & C. P. Wood (1979) Magmatic eruption of White Island volcano, New Zealand, December 1976–April 1977, New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:2, 175-190,
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Hedenquist, J.W., Simmons, S.F., Giggenbach, W.F., Stewart Eldridge, C. (1993) White Island, New Zealand, volcanic-hydrothermal system represents the geochemical environment of high-sulfidation Cu and Au ore deposition. Geology, 21(8), 731-734.
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Hedenquist, J.W., Simmons, S.F., Giggenbach, W.F., Stewart Eldridge, C. (1993) White Island, New Zealand, volcanic-hydrothermal system represents the geochemical environment of high-sulfidation Cu and Au ore deposition. Geology, 21(8), 731-734.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Hedenquist, J.W., Simmons, S.F., Giggenbach, W.F., Stewart Eldridge, C. (1993) White Island, New Zealand, volcanic-hydrothermal system represents the geochemical environment of high-sulfidation Cu and Au ore deposition. Geology, 21(8), 731-734.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: White Island. Hamilton and Baumgart, 1959. DSIR Bull. 127. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whakaari/White_Island; Cole, J.W., Thordarson, T., Burt, R.M. (2000) Magma Origin and Evolution of White Island (Whakaari) Volcano, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Journal of Petrology, 41(6), 867-895.
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Cody, A.D., Grammer, T.R. (1979) Magnesian halotrichite from White Island. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 22:4, 495-498.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: J. W. COLE, T. THORDARSON, R. M. BURT, Magma Origin and Evolution of White Island (Whakaari) Volcano, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand, Journal of Petrology, Volume 41, Issue 6, June 2000, Pages 867–895,

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Akaganeite4.DK.05(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Cristobalite4.DA.15SiO2
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Tridymite4.DA.10SiO2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Chalcanthite7.CB.20CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Natroalunite7.BC.10NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Augite9.DA.15(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Enstatite9.DA.05Mg2Si2O6
Ferrosilite9.DA.05FeSiO3
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Wollastonite9.DG.05CaSiO3
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Akaganeite6.1.6.1(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Chalcanthite29.6.7.1CuSO4 · 5H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Augite65.1.3a.3(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Enstatite65.1.2.1Mg2Si2O6
Ferrosilite65.1.2.2FeSiO3
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
Wollastonite65.2.1.1cCaSiO3
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Tridymite75.1.2.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'-
'Hypersthene'-(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Natroalunite-NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Pyroxene Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
H NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
OOxygen
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O QuartzSiO2
O CristobaliteSiO2
O Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O TridymiteSiO2
O ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
O NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
O Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
O FerrosiliteFeSiO3
O WollastoniteCaSiO3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
NaSodium
Na NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
MgMagnesium
Mg Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Mg Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Mg EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
AlAluminium
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si TridymiteSiO2
Si Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Si Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Si EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
Si FerrosiliteFeSiO3
Si WollastoniteCaSiO3
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SSulfur
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S SulphurS8
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
S NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S PyriteFeS2
ClChlorine
Cl Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
KPotassium
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Ca WollastoniteCaSiO3
FeIron
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Augite(CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Fe Hypersthene(Mg,Fe)SiO3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe FerrosiliteFeSiO3
NiNickel
Ni Akaganeite(Fe3+,Ni2+)8(OH,O)16Cl1.25 · nH2O
CuCopper
Cu ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
Giggenbach, W.F., Matsuo, S. (1991) Evaluation of results from Second and Third IAVCEI Field Workshops on Volcanic Gases Mt Usu, Japan, and White Island, New Zealand. Applied Geochemistry, 6(2), 125-141.
Johnston, J.H. (1977) Jarosite and akaganéite from White Island Volcano, New Zealand: an X-ray and Mossbauer study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 41(4), 539-544.
Nairn, I.A., Houghton, B.F., Cole, J.W. 1996 Volcanic hazards at White Island. 2nd ed. [Palmerston North, NZ]: Ministry of Civil Defence. Volcanic hazards information series 3, 27 pages.
Cole, J.W., Thordarson, T., Burt, R.M. (2000) Magma Origin and Evolution of White Island (Whakaari) Volcano, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. Journal of Petrology, 41(6), 867-895.
Letham-Brake, M.J. (2013) Geological constraints on fluid flow at Whakaari volcano (White Island). Unpublished thesis, MSc in Geology, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 90 pages.

Other Databases

Wikipedia:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whakaari_/_White_Island
Wikidata ID:Q557077
GeoNames ID:6248842

External Links



This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
 
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