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Butte-Silver Bow, Montana, USAi
Regional Level Types
Butte-Silver BowCity
MontanaState
USACountry

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Key
05543920014947943913007.jpg
Highland Centennial Gold Nugget

Butte-Silver Bow, Montana, USA
03356650014947943929180.jpg
More Specimens in the Safe

Butte-Silver Bow, Montana, USA
01316980014947943931416.jpg
More Specimens in the Safe

Butte-Silver Bow, Montana, USA
05543920014947943913007.jpg
Highland Centennial Gold Nugget

Butte-Silver Bow, Montana, USA
03356650014947943929180.jpg
More Specimens in the Safe

Butte-Silver Bow, Montana, USA
01316980014947943931416.jpg
More Specimens in the Safe

Butte-Silver Bow, Montana, USA
05543920014947943913007.jpg
Highland Centennial Gold Nugget

Butte-Silver Bow, Montana, USA
03356650014947943929180.jpg
More Specimens in the Safe

Butte-Silver Bow, Montana, USA
Locality type:
Largest Settlements:
PlacePopulation
Butte34,190 (2011)
Butte-Silver Bow (Balance)33,525 (2013)
Walkerville700 (2017)
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
City and County of Butte-Silver Bow; Butte; Silver Bow Co.
Other Languages:
French:
comté de Silver Bow, Montana, États-Unis
German:
Silver Bow County, Montana, Vereinigte Staaten
Italian:
contea di Silver Bow, Montana, Stati Uniti d'America
Russian:
Силвер-Боу, Монтана, Соединённые Штаты Америки
Simplified Chinese:
比尤特-銀弓市和縣, 蒙大拿州, 美国
Spanish:
Condado de Silver Bow, Montana, Estados Unidos
Albanian:
Silver Bow County, Montana, Shtetet e Bashkuara të Amerikës
Arabic:
مقاطعة سيلفير بو, مونتانا, الولايات المتحدة
Armenian:
Սիլվեր շրջան, Մոնտանա, Ամերիկայի Միացյալ Նահանգներ
Basque:
Silver Bow konderria , Montana
Bavarian:
Silver Bow County, Montana, Vaoanigte Stootn
Bishnupriya Manipuri:
সিলভার বৱ কাউন্টি, মন্টানা, তিলপারাষ্ট্র
Bulgarian:
Силвър Боу, Монтана, Съединени американски щати
Cebuano:
Silver Bow County, Montana
Dutch:
Silver Bow County, Montana, Verenigde Staten
Esperanto:
Kantono Arĝenta Arko, Montano
Estonian:
Silver Bow' maakond, Montana, Ameerika Ühendriigid
Farsi/Persian:
شهرستان سیلور بو، مونتانا, مونتانا, ایالات متحده آمریکا
Georgian:
სილვერ-ბოუს ოლქი, მონტანა, ამერიკის შეერთებული შტატები
Hungarian:
Silver Bow megye, Montana, Amerikai Egyesült Államok
Japanese:
シルバーボウ郡, モンタナ州, アメリカ合衆国
Low Saxon/Low German:
Silver Bow County, Montana, USA
Min Dong Chinese:
Silver Bow Gông, Montana
Minnan / Hokkien-Taiwanese:
Silver Bow Kūn
Norwegian:
Silver Bow County, Montana, USA
Polish:
Hrabstwo Silver Bow, Montana, Stany Zjednoczone
Portuguese:
Condado de Silver Bow, Montana, Estados Unidos
Romanian:
Comitatul Silver Bow, Montana, Statele Unite ale Americii
Sardinian:
contea de Silver Bow, Montana, Istados Unidos de Amèrica
Scottish Gaelic:
Silver Bow County, Montana, Na Stàitean Aonaichte
Serbian:
Округ Силвер Боу, Монтана, Сједињене Америчке Државе
Serbo-Croatian:
Silver Bow County, Montana, Sjedinjene Američke Države
Swedish:
Silver Bow County, Montana, USA
Traditional Chinese:
比尤特-銀弓市和縣, 蒙大拿州, 美國
Turkish:
Silver Bow County, Montana, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri
Ukrainian:
Сілвер-Бау, Монтана, Сполучені Штати Америки
Urdu:
سلور بو کاؤنٹی، مونٹانا, مونٹانا, ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکا
Vietnamese:
Quận Silver Bow, Montana, Chủng Quốc Hoa Kỳ
Waray:
Condado han Silver Bow, Montana, Estados Unidos
Western Punjabi:
سلور بو کاؤنٹی،مونٹانا, مونٹانا, امریکہ


In 1977, the city of Butte and the county of Silver Bow governments consolidated to form the sole entity of Butte-Silver Bow. The city covers 718 square miles (1,860 km2), and, according to the 2010 census, has a population of 33,503, making it Montana's fifth largest city.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the city of Butte, Montana, experienced every stage of development of a mining town, from camp to boomtown to mature city to center for historic preservation and environmental cleanup. Unlike most such towns, Butte's urban landscape includes mining operations set within residential areas, making the environmental consequences of the extraction economy all the more apparent. Despite the dominance of the Anaconda Company, Butte was never a company town. It prided itself on architectural diversity and a civic ethos of rough-and-tumble individualism. In the 21st century, efforts at interpreting and preserving Butte's heritage are addressing both the town's historical significance and the continuing importance of mining to its economy and culture.[*]

Butte was one of the largest cities in the Rocky Mountains in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Silver Bow County (Butte and suburbs) had 24,000 people in 1890, and peaked at 100,000 in 1920[citation needed]. The population steadily declined with falling copper prices after World War I, eventually dropping to 34,000 in 1990 and stabilized. In 2013, the population remains at 34,200. In its heyday from the late 19th century to circa 1920, it was one of the largest and most notorious copper boomtowns in the American West, home to hundreds of saloons and a famous red-light district. The documentary Butte, America, depicts its history as a copper producer and the issues of labor unionism, economic rise and decline, and environmental degradation that resulted from the activity.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

159 valid minerals. 2 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Actinolite
Formula: ◻Ca2(Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5)Si8O22OH2
Reference: USGS Bull 574
Aikinite
Formula: PbCuBiS3
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Alabandite
Formula: MnS
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Albite var. Oligoclase
Formula: (Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si2O8]
Reference: Guidebook for the Butte Field Meeting of the Society Of Economic Geologists, 1973
'Allanite Group'
Formula: {A12+REE3+}{M3+2M32+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Allophane
Formula: (Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
'Amphibole Supergroup'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
'Amphibole Supergroup var. Uralite'
Formula: AX2Z5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Reference: Guidebook for the Butte Field Meeting of the Society Of Economic Geologists, 1973
'Andorite'
Formula: AgPbSb3S6
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Antlerite
Formula: Cu3(SO4)(OH)4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates..
Arsenolite
Formula: As2O3
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Arsenopyrite
Formula: FeAsS
Augite
Formula: (CaxMgyFez)(Mgy1Fez1)Si2O6
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Autunite
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 10-12H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Description: The most interesting, and probably most scarce mineral occuring in the Mountain Con is betekthinite. A specimen in the J.A. Lorengo collection consists of brassy-red (corroded) pyrites to 1.5cm scattered among quartz xtls to 2.5cm. The pyrite is coated wi
Reference: J.A. Lorengo collection
Beraunite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+5(PO4)4(OH)5 · 6H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: The Lapidary Journal, May 1985; The Mineral News
Betekhtinite
Formula: (Cu,Fe)21Pb2S15
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg/Ti)([Si/Al/Fe]2Si2O10)(OH/F)2 or Simplified: K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Böhmite
Formula: AlO(OH)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Boothite
Formula: CuSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Localities: Reported from at least 57 localities in this region.
Description: The East Colusa Mine is important as being the locality of the only type species found at Butte.
Reference: Roberts et al., "Encyclopedia of Minerals". Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1974
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Bromargyrite
Formula: AgBr
Reference: USGS Bull 574
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 25 localities in this region.
Description: The Stewart is probably most famous for the bornite and tennatite specimens found there. I have one very interesting specimen consisting of a single needle of betekthinite to 1.5cm included within a translucent, doubly terminated calcite scalenohedron to
Reference: J.A. Lorengo collection
Calcite var. Manganese-bearing Calcite
Formula: (Ca,Mn)CO3
Reference: The mineralogy of the butte district, Montana By John M. Guilbert and Lester G. Zeihen
Caledonite
Formula: Pb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6
Reference: Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: Appendix 2: 23,26.
Canfieldite
Formula: Ag8SnS6
Reference: Van King
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16:242; USGS Bull. #624: 180.
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: Mineralogical Record 33:1; Gammons, C. H., Szarkowski, J., & Stevenson, R. (2016) New investigations of the mineralogy of silver in the world-class porphyry-lode deposits of Butte, MT. Mining engineering Magazine website
'Chabazite'
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates..
Chalcanthite
Formula: CuSO4 · 5H2O
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16: 243.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Localities: Reported from at least 70 localities in this region.
Reference: J Lorengo collection; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; USGS Bulletin 625
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 73 localities in this region.
Reference: [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
Chalcosiderite
Formula: CuFe3+6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Chamosite
Formula: (Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16:243, 247.
Chamosite var. Thuringite
Formula: (Fe,Fe,Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(O,OH)8
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16:243, 247.
Chlorargyrite
Formula: AgCl
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates..
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O, x < 1
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16:243, 247.
'Clinopyroxene Subgroup'
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
Clintonite
Formula: CaAlMg2(SiAl3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Colusite (TL)
Formula: Cu13VAs3S16
Localities: Reported from at least 9 localities in this region.
Description: The East Colusa Mine is important as being the locality of the only type species found at Butte.
Reference: Can Min 19 (1981), 423; Roberts et al., "Encyclopedia of Minerals". Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1974; Dana 7:I:387.
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Copper
Formula: Cu
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
'Copper Pitch Ore'
Reference: USGS Bull 574
'Copper Stain'
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 610 "Principal Gold Producing Districts of the United States"
Coquimbite
Formula: AlFe3(SO4)6(H2O)12 · 6H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Cornwallite
Formula: Cu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Corundum
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Berg, R.B. 2007 "Sapphires in the Butte-Deer Lodge Area, Montana" Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, Bull. 134
Corundum var. Sapphire
Formula: Al2O3
Reference: Jay Ellis Ransom,1974, Gems and Minerals of America
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Localities: Reported from at least 30 localities in this region.
Description: The East Colusa Mine is important as being the locality of the only type species found at Butte.
Reference: Roberts et al., "Encyclopedia of Minerals". Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1974
Cryptomelane
Formula: K(Mn4+7Mn3+)O16
Reference: Weed, W. H. Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Localities: Reported from at least 12 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Curite
Formula: Pb3(H2O)2[(UO2)4O4(OH)3]2
Reference: USGS Bull 574
Danburite
Formula: CaB2Si2O8
Reference: Rocks & Minerals (Nov-Dec. 2003)
Dickite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Digenite
Formula: Cu9S5
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: J Lorengo collection
Diopside
Formula: CaMgSi2O6
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Djurleite
Formula: Cu31S16
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Localities: Reported from at least 22 localities in this region.
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: van Laer, in preparation
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Localities: Reported from at least 60 localities in this region.
Habit: Crystals
Colour: Black
Description: Occasionaly pseudomorphed after hubnerite.
Reference: Mineralogical Record 33:1; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; USGS Bulletin 625
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates..
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
'Fayalite-Forsterite Series'
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 47:3 pp160-164
Ferberite
Formula: FeWO4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Localities: Reported from at least 26 localities in this region.
Forsterite
Formula: Mg2SiO4
Reference: Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Furutobeite
Formula: (Cu,Ag)6PbS4
Reference: Species confirmed by Dr. Ben Schumer of Hazen Research, Golden, Colorado using SEM/BSE analysis.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Localities: Reported from at least 63 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16:244.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'Glass'
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Gold
Formula: Au
Localities: Reported from at least 68 localities in this region.
Reference: Mining Ann. Review(1985):39.
Gold var. Electrum
Formula: (Au,Ag)
Reference: Chris Gammons and Ryan Stevenson (2015) Silver Mineralogy of the Butte Mines. 2015 Mining and Mineral Symposium, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology p50; Gammons, C. H., Szarkowski, J., & Stevenson, R. (2016) New investigations of the mineralogy of silver in the world-class porphyry-lode deposits of Butte, MT. Mining engineering Magazine website
Goldfieldite
Formula: (Cu42)(Cu4Cu+2)Te4S12S
Reference: Handbook of Mineralogy
Goslarite
Formula: ZnSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 1091; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 515.
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Grossular
Formula: Ca3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: J Lorengo collection
Gypsum var. Selenite
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Hedenbergite
Formula: CaFe2+Si2O6
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
Helvine
Formula: Be3Mn2+4(SiO4)3S
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16: 244, 247.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Mineral Associations at Butte, Montana, D.C. Bard & M.H. Gidel, 1914.
Hematite var. Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
'Heulandite'
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates..
Hinsdalite
Formula: PbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Description: Occurs as excellent colorless to greenish tinted transparent micro-crystals on enargite, covellite, and quartz crystals from the Leonard Mine.
Reference: Roberts et al., "Encyclopedia of Minerals". Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1974.
'Hornblende'
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Hübnerite
Formula: MnWO4
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Hydrozincite
Formula: Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Ilmenite
Formula: Fe2+TiO3
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Jalpaite
Formula: Ag3CuS2
Reference: Gammons, C. H., Szarkowski, J., & Stevenson, R. (2016) New investigations of the mineralogy of silver in the world-class porphyry-lode deposits of Butte, MT. Mining engineering Magazine website
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
'K Feldspar'
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
'K Feldspar var. Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Gammons, C. H., Szarkowski, J., & Stevenson, R. (2016) New investigations of the mineralogy of silver in the world-class porphyry-lode deposits of Butte, MT. Mining engineering Magazine website
Kirschsteinite
Formula: CaFe2+SiO4
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
Larosite
Formula: (Cu,Ag)21PbBiS13
Reference: Gammons, C. H., Szarkowski, J., & Stevenson, R. (2016) New investigations of the mineralogy of silver in the world-class porphyry-lode deposits of Butte, MT. Mining engineering Magazine website
Libethenite
Formula: Cu2(PO4)(OH)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
'Limonite'
Localities: Reported from at least 16 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Linarite
Formula: PbCu(SO4)(OH)2
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 555; Rocks & Minerals 81: 208-213.
Luzonite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 27 localities in this region.
Manganite
Formula: Mn3+O(OH)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Mawsonite
Formula: Cu6Fe2SnS8
Reference: Gammons, C. H., Szarkowski, J., & Stevenson, R. (2016) New investigations of the mineralogy of silver in the world-class porphyry-lode deposits of Butte, MT. Mining engineering Magazine website
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 502; The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Melanterite var. Copper-bearing Melanterite
Formula: (Fe,Cu)SO4 · 7H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
'Mica Group'
Reference: USGS Bull 574
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Localities: Reported from at least 24 localities in this region.
Description: 2H polytype.
Reference: Chester S. Lemanski, Jr.
Montanite (TL)
Formula: Bi2(TeO6) · 2H2O
Description: Occurs as an alteration product of Tetradymite.
Reference: American Journal of Science (1868): 95: 318; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 637.; USGS Bull 574
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16: 245.
Muscovite var. Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Muscovite var. Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Natrojarosite ?
Formula: NaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Palygorskite
Formula: (Mg,Al)2Si4O10(OH) · 4H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Pearceite
Formula: [Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16: 246.
Petedunnite
Formula: Ca(Zn,Mn2+,Mg,Fe2+)Si2O6
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Polybasite
Formula: [(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16: 246.
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Proustite
Formula: Ag3AsS3
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Pseudomalachite
Formula: Cu5(PO4)2(OH)4
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
'Psilomelane'
Formula: Mn, O
Localities: Reported from at least 11 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Pyrargyrite
Formula: Ag3SbS3
Localities: Reported from at least 7 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Localities: Reported from at least 126 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Pyrolusite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Pyromorphite
Formula: Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Pyrophyllite
Formula: Al2Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Localities: Reported from at least 144 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Quartz var. Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Reference: MacFall, P.M. (1951) Gem Hunter's Guide (1st ed.). Science and Mathematics Publishing Company, 187 pages.
Quartz var. Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Quartz var. Jasper
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Quartz var. Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 47:3 pp160-164
Ramsdellite
Formula: Mn4+O2
Reference: The mineralogy of the butte district, Montana By John M. Guilbert and Lester G. Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Rhodochrosite
Formula: MnCO3
Localities: Reported from at least 74 localities in this region.
Reference: Manganese at Butte, Montana; J.T. Pardee 1918; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Rhodonite
Formula: CaMn3Mn[Si5O15]
Localities: Reported from at least 41 localities in this region.
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16: 244.; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Romanèchite
Formula: (Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10
Reference: "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Römerite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Sanidine
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Scheelite
Formula: Ca(WO4)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Seligmannite
Formula: PbCuAsS3
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Sepiolite
Formula: Mg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
'Serpentine Subgroup'
Formula: D3[Si2O5](OH)4 D = Mg, Fe, Ni, Mn, Al, Zn
Reference: USGS Bull 574
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: The mineralogy of the butte district, Montana By John M. Guilbert and Lester G. Zeihen
Siderite var. Manganese-bearing Siderite
Formula: (Fe,Mn)CO3
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Silver
Formula: Ag
Localities: Reported from at least 34 localities in this region.
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Gammons, C. H., Szarkowski, J., & Stevenson, R. (2016) New investigations of the mineralogy of silver in the world-class porphyry-lode deposits of Butte, MT. Mining engineering Magazine website
Smithsonite
Formula: ZnCO3
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Localities: Reported from at least 97 localities in this region.
Reference: J Lorengo collection
Sphalerite var. Cleiophane
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Rob Lavinsky (ex. Richard Haas and Robert Whitmore specimen)
Spinel
Formula: MgAl2O4
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
Stephanite
Formula: Ag5SbS4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16: 247.
Stibnite
Formula: Sb2S3
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 47:3 pp160-164
'Stilbite subgroup'
Formula: M6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates..
Stromeyerite
Formula: AgCuS
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Sylvanite
Formula: (Au,Ag)2Te4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Szomolnokite
Formula: FeSO4 · H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Talc
Formula: Mg3Si4O10(OH)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Tellurobismuthite
Formula: Bi2Te3
Reference: Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
'Tennantite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4 C2+2)As4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 14 localities in this region.
Description: The most interesting, and probably most scarce mineral occuring in the Mountain Con is betekthinite. A specimen in the J.A. Lorengo collection consists of brassy-red (corroded) pyrites to 1.5cm scattered among quartz xtls to 2.5cm. The pyrite is coated wi
Reference: J.A. Lorengo collection; Rocks & Min.: 16:247.; Gammons, C. H., Szarkowski, J., & Stevenson, R. (2016) New investigations of the mineralogy of silver in the world-class porphyry-lode deposits of Butte, MT. Mining engineering Magazine website
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Localities: Reported from at least 8 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Tetradymite
Formula: Bi2Te2S
Reference: USGS Prof Paper 610 "Principal Gold Producing Districts of the United States"; Genth F A (1868) Contributions to mineralogy - No. VII, The American Journal of Science and Arts, 95, 305-321; USGS Bull 574
'Tetrahedrite Subgroup'
Formula: Cu6(Cu4 C2+2)Sb4S12S
Localities: Reported from at least 38 localities in this region.
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates..
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: van Laer, in preparation
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Turquoise
Formula: CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
Uraninite
Formula: UO2
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Vesuvianite
Formula: Ca19Fe3+Al4(Al6Mg2)(◻4)◻[Si2O7]4[(SiO4)10]O(OH)9
Reference: Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Vivianite
Formula: Fe2+3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Voltaite
Formula: K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
'Wad'
Formula: Mn, O, H
Localities: Reported from at least 6 localities in this region.
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Wavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
Wittichenite
Formula: Cu3BiS3
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen 1964
'Wolframite'
Formula: (Fe2+)WO4 to (Mn2+)WO4
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 16:247.
Wollastonite
Formula: CaSiO3
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
Wulfenite
Formula: Pb(MoO4)
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates.
Wurtzite
Formula: (Zn,Fe)S
Habit: Crystals
Colour: Black
Reference: J Lorengo collection
Wüstite
Formula: FeO
Reference: Kaplan, Jenna(2016) "Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of slag in Lower Area One, Butte, Montana."
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: Weed, W.H. (1912) Geology and Ore Deposits of the Butte District, Montana. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 74, 262 pages plus plates..
Zoisite
Formula: Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen
Zunyite
Formula: Al13Si5O20(OH,F)18Cl
Reference: The Mineralogy of The Butte District, Montana; Guilbert and Zeihen

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