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Interstate 99 Skytop roadcut, Skytop, State College, Centre Co., Pennsylvania, USAi
Regional Level Types
Interstate 99 Skytop roadcutRoad Cutting
Skytop- not defined -
State College- not defined -
Centre Co.County
PennsylvaniaState
USACountry

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Key
06764910014963341167464.jpg
Gossan zone in the Bald Eagle Sandstone from the I-99 Roadcut

Interstate 99 Skytop roadcut, Skytop, State College, Centre Co., Pennsylvania, USA
00745580014950572555928.jpg
Acid Rock Drainage pool, I-99 construction near Skytop, PA

Interstate 99 Skytop roadcut, Skytop, State College, Centre Co., Pennsylvania, USA
00467450014961991959815.jpg
Gossan zone in the Bald Eagle Sandstone from the I-99 Roadcut

Interstate 99 Skytop roadcut, Skytop, State College, Centre Co., Pennsylvania, USA
00745580014950572555928.jpg
Acid Rock Drainage pool, I-99 construction near Skytop, PA

Interstate 99 Skytop roadcut, Skytop, State College, Centre Co., Pennsylvania, USA
06764910014963341167464.jpg
Gossan zone in the Bald Eagle Sandstone from the I-99 Roadcut

Interstate 99 Skytop roadcut, Skytop, State College, Centre Co., Pennsylvania, USA
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
40° 50' North , 77° 58' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Julian152 (2017)4.1km
Park Forest Village9,660 (2017)5.1km
Stormstown2,366 (2017)6.1km
Toftrees2,053 (2017)7.2km
Port Matilda598 (2017)8.3km


First road cut along Interstate 99 at Skytop, in sandstone, revealing extensive pyrite vein mineralization with associated Pb-Zn minerals and a wide variety of secondaries. Crushed rocks quickly weathered to secondary sulfates giving the water a very acidic pH. Primary mineralization is pyrite with associated marcasite, sphalerite, and minor galena, chalcopyrite. Other non-metallic minerals are pinkish massive ankerite and baryte. REE phosphates have also been documented, monazite containing the lighter lanthanides as well a some thorium; xenotime-(Y) containing the heavier lanthanides as well as yttrium.

NOTE: Coordinates were generated based on highway, topographic and satellite imagery maps and place the location on center of the roadcut.

Smith (1977), p. 209) noted that A.V. Heyl (personal communication, 1972)reported P. D. Krynine's finding barite and galena in veinlets in the lower Tuscarora quartzite in this area. Smith himself reported major [>10%] amounts of finely crystalline pyrite and drusy quartzite in the Bald Eagle Sandstone. The bitter odor of the mineralization was noticable while driving by prior to the start of construction of I-99.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


36 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior; Gold, D. P. (2006, October). Skytop: a Case History of Highway Construction Through a Sulfide Vein Deposit in Centre Country, Pennsylvania. In 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting.
Anglesite
Formula: PbSO4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Cerussite
Formula: PbCO3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Copiapite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Epsomite
Formula: MgSO4 · 7H2O
Reference: Gold, D. P. (2006, October). Skytop: a Case History of Highway Construction Through a Sulfide Vein Deposit in Centre Country, Pennsylvania. In 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting.
Ferrihydrite
Formula: Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Greenockite ?
Formula: CdS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior; Gold, D. P. (2006, October). Skytop: a Case History of Highway Construction Through a Sulfide Vein Deposit in Centre Country, Pennsylvania. In 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting.
Halotrichite
Formula: FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.S. Department of the Interior
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Hexahydrite
Formula: MgSO4 · 6H2O
Reference: Gold, D. P. (2006, October). Skytop: a Case History of Highway Construction Through a Sulfide Vein Deposit in Centre Country, Pennsylvania. In 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Melanterite
Formula: Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior; Gold, D. P. (2006, October). Skytop: a Case History of Highway Construction Through a Sulfide Vein Deposit in Centre Country, Pennsylvania. In 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Nickelskutterudite ?
Formula: (Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Reference: Hammarstrom, J.M., Brady, K., and Cravotta, C.A., III (2005) Acid-rock drainage at Skytop, Centre County, Pennsylvania, 2004. USGS Open-File Report 2005-1148
Pickeringite
Formula: MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Reference: Gold, D. P. (2006, October). Skytop: a Case History of Highway Construction Through a Sulfide Vein Deposit in Centre Country, Pennsylvania. In 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior; Gold, D. P. (2006, October). Skytop: a Case History of Highway Construction Through a Sulfide Vein Deposit in Centre Country, Pennsylvania. In 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe1-xS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Rozenite
Formula: FeSO4 · 4H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Schwertmannite
Formula: Fe3+16(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
'Thénardite'
Formula: Na2SO4
Reference: Gold, D. P. (2006, October). Skytop: a Case History of Highway Construction Through a Sulfide Vein Deposit in Centre Country, Pennsylvania. In 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting.
Variscite
Formula: AlPO4 · 2H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Wattevilleite
Formula: Na2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
Reference: Gold, D. P. (2006, October). Skytop: a Case History of Highway Construction Through a Sulfide Vein Deposit in Centre Country, Pennsylvania. In 2006 Philadelphia Annual Meeting.
Wavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Woodhouseite
Formula: CaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.S. Department of the Interior
Xenotime-(Y) ?
Formula: Y(PO4)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
Zircon
Formula: Zr(SiO4)
Reference: U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite ?2.CB.45CdS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Nickelskutterudite ?2.EC.05(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe1-xS
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Ferrihydrite4.FE.35Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Cerussite5.AB.15PbCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Anglesite7.AD.35PbSO4
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Copiapite7.DB.35Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Epsomite7.CB.40MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Halotrichite7.CB.85FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Hexahydrite7.CB.25MgSO4 · 6H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Melanterite7.CB.35Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Pickeringite7.CB.85MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Rozenite7.CB.15FeSO4 · 4H2O
Schwertmannite7.DE.15Fe3+16(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
'Thénardite'7.AC.25Na2SO4
Wattevilleite7.CC.85Na2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Variscite8.CD.10AlPO4 · 2H2O
Wavellite8.DC.50Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Woodhouseite8.BL.05CaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Xenotime-(Y) ?8.AD.35Y(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Zircon9.AD.30Zr(SiO4)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite ?2.8.7.2CdS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe1-xS
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Nickelskutterudite ?2.12.17.2(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Ferrihydrite4.3.2.2Fe3+10O14(OH)2
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Miscellaneous
Schwertmannite6.4.10.1Fe3+16(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Cerussite14.1.3.4PbCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2XO4
'Thénardite'28.2.3.1Na2SO4
AXO4
Anglesite28.3.1.3PbSO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Wattevilleite29.3.4.1Na2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
AXO4·xH2O
Epsomite29.6.11.1MgSO4 · 7H2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Hexahydrite29.6.8.1MgSO4 · 6H2O
Melanterite29.6.10.1Fe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Rozenite29.6.6.1FeSO4 · 4H2O
AB2(XO4)4·H2O
Halotrichite29.7.3.2FeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Pickeringite29.7.3.1MgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Miscellaneous
Copiapite31.10.5.1Fe2+Fe3+4(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Variscite40.4.1.1AlPO4 · 2H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Wavellite42.10.2.1Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Group 43 - COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Woodhouseite43.4.1.8CaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Zircon51.5.2.1Zr(SiO4)
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Xenotime-(Y) ?-Y(PO4)

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
H MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
H WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
H VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
H SchwertmanniteFe163+(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
H HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
H WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
H PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
H HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
H EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C CerussitePbCO3
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O AnglesitePbSO4
O CerussitePbCO3
O QuartzSiO2
O CalciteCaCO3
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
O MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
O RutileTiO2
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
O WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
O VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O ZirconZr(SiO4)
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
O SchwertmanniteFe163+(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
O HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
O WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
O PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
O HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
O ThénarditeNa2SO4
O EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
O Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
FFluorine
F WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
NaSodium
Na WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
Na ThénarditeNa2SO4
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Mg HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
Mg EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
AlAluminium
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Al VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
Al HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Al WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Al PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
SiSilicon
Si QuartzSiO2
Si ZirconZr(SiO4)
PPhosphorus
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
P WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
P VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
P WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
P Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S GalenaPbS
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S PyriteFeS2
S MarcasiteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S AnglesitePbSO4
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
S MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
S RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S SchwertmanniteFe163+(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
S HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
S WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
S PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
S HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
S ThénarditeNa2SO4
S EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
S GreenockiteCdS
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
Ca WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe CopiapiteFe2+Fe43+(SO4)6(OH)2 · 20H2O
Fe MelanteriteFe2+(H2O)6SO4 · H2O
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
Fe RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe FerrihydriteFe103+O14(OH)2
Fe SchwertmanniteFe163+(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
Fe HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
Fe Nickelskutterudite(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
CoCobalt
Co Nickelskutterudite(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
NiNickel
Ni Nickelskutterudite(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As Nickelskutterudite(Ni,Co,Fe)As3
YYttrium
Y Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)
ZrZirconium
Zr ZirconZr(SiO4)
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
Pb AnglesitePbSO4
Pb CerussitePbCO3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Smith, II, R. C. (1977) Zinc and Lead Occurrences in Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 4th series, Mineral Resource Report 72, 318p.
Hammarstrom, J.M., Brady, K., and Cravotta, C.A., III (2005) Acid-rock drainage at Skytop, Centre County, Pennsylvania, 2004. USGS Open-File Report 2005-1148
Pennsylvania Chapter of the Friends of Mineralogy Newsletter, 32 (1-2), 2-3 (see http://www.mindat.org/mesg-5-40798.html)

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