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Esperanza Mine [new] (Esperanza pit; Esperanza open pit mines; West Esperanza Mine), Pima Mining District (Olive Mining District; Mineral Hill Mining District; Twin Buttes Mining District), Sierrita Mts, Pima Co., Arizona, USAi
Regional Level Types
Esperanza Mine [new] (Esperanza pit; Esperanza open pit mines; West Esperanza Mine)- not defined -
Pima Mining District (Olive Mining District; Mineral Hill Mining District; Twin Buttes Mining District)Mining District
Sierrita MtsMountain Range
Pima Co.County
ArizonaState
USACountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
31° 52' 4'' North , 111° 7' 44'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Green Valley21,391 (2011)12.8km
Arivaca Junction1,090 (2011)16.9km
Amado295 (2011)18.8km
Sahuarita25,707 (2017)19.2km
East Sahuarita1,622 (2006)20.7km


A former large Cu-Mo-Ag-Au-Pb-Zn (U) occurrence/mine located in the SE¼ sec. 8, the NW¼ sec. 16 & the NE¼ sec. 17, T18S, R12E. (Batamote Hills 7.5 minute topo map), 4½ miles SW of Twin Buttes and 48 km S of Tucson on private property. Discovered by P.H. Chambers in 1895. Produced 1959-1986. Owned at times, or in part, by the Duval Sulphur & Potash Co.; and the Duval Corp. (a Pennzoil subsidiary). Closed December, 1981.

Mineralization is an ovate, massive ore body comprised of disseminated copper sulfides, oxides, and carbonates with molybdenite and minor lead and zinc minerals, and traces of torbernite in brecciated, fissured, and jointed, strongly altered Laramide intrusive complex of quartz latite to andesite invading Triassic to Cretaceous volcanics. Ore control was faults which controlled the upward movement of hypogene and downward movement of supergene metallization. Ore concentration was supergene enrichment. Metallization occurred during several intrusive pulses and alteration. Alteration included clay (moderate to intense), quartz-sericite-K feldspar argillation, silicification, and biotite. An associated rock unit is the Ruby Star Quartz Monzonite Porphyry and the Ox Frame Volcanics. The ore body is 1,280.16 meters long, 701.04 meters wide, depth to top of 30.48 meters, depth to bottom 158.5 meters and 128.02 meters thick.

Local structures include a broad NW-trending shear zone. Faults trending NE-ENE, and dipping NW and SE; NW-NNW, dipping NE and SW; N-S, and dipping E and W.

Workings were open pit operations at 1,280 meters long by 609.6 meters wide. From 1959 through 1972, some 59,000,000 tons of ore averaging about 0.5% Cu, 0.017% Mo, 0.04 oz. Ag/T and minor Au, Zn, & Pb have been produced. Ore grade has averaged 0.5% Cu and 0.028% Mo since the start of operation.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


39 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Description: Occurs in veinlets with or without turquoise in the oxidized capping over the sulfide orebody.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 107;
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 114.
'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Azurite
Formula: Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10186590, MAS ID #0040190003.
'Biotite'
Formula: K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.; Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Brochantite
Formula: Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Description: Occurs as an extensive enrichment blanket.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 107, 163; Schmidt, H.A., et al (1959), Disseminated deposits at the Esperanza copper mine, in Southern AZ Guidebook II, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 2: 205;
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 107, 166; Tainter, S.L. (1947b), Amargosa (Esperanza) molybdenum-copper property, Pima Co., AZ, US Bur. Mines Rept. Inv. 4016; Kirkemo, H., et al (1965), Investigations of Molybdenum Deposits in the Conterminous United States 1942-60, Contributions to Economic Geology, USGS Bull. 1182-E: E12.; Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
Chrysocolla
Formula: Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
Enargite
Formula: Cu3AsS4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
Ferrimolybdite
Formula: Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Description: Occurs in the New Year's Eve Breccia.
Reference: thony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 220.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
Hematite var: Specularite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
'Limonite'
Formula: (Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
Lindgrenite
Formula: Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Description: Very sparse.
Reference: thony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 278.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.; Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
Marcasite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Description: Occurs in the New Year's Eve Breccia.
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1974), AZ Bur. of Geol. & Min. Technology, Geol. Survey Br. Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 135 (Table 4); Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 220; Kirkemo, H., et al (1965), Investigations of Molybdenum Deposits in the Conterminous United States 1942-60, Contributions to Economic Geology, USGS Bull. 1182-E: E12; Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.; Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Description: Occurs in nepheline syenite in an exploratory drill hole.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 312; Schmidt, H.A., et al (1959), Disseminated deposits at the Esperanza copper mine, in Southern AZ Guidebook II, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 2: 205.
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.; Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683; Econ Geol (1980) 75:673-683
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Description: Tungsten-rich material occurring in the New Year's Eve Breccia.
Reference: thony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 220.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
'Stilbite subgroup'
Description: Found in drill core in 1967.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 383.
Tenorite
Formula: CuO
Reference: MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391.
'Tetrahedrite'
Formula: Cu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: Keith, Stanton B. (1974), AZ Bur. of Geol. & Min. Technology, Geol. Survey Br. Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, AZ: 135 (Table 4); Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Description: Occurs in veinlets with alunite in the oxidized capping over the sulfide orebody.
Reference: Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 107, 405; Schmidt, H.A., et al (1959), Disseminated deposits at the Esperanza copper mine, in Southern AZ Guidebook II, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 2: 205.
'Zeolite Group'
Reference: Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Enargite2.KA.05Cu3AsS4
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Marcasite2.EB.10aFeS2
Molybdenite2.EA.30MoS2
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
'Tetrahedrite'2.GB.05Cu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
var: Specularite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Tenorite4.AB.10CuO
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Ankerite5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Azurite5.BA.05Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Brochantite7.BB.25Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
Ferrimolybdite7.GB.30Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Lindgrenite7.GB.05Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Torbernite8.EB.05Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 9 - Silicates
Chrysocolla9.ED.20Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Nepheline9.FA.05Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
'Zeolite Group'9.G0.
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
'Stilbite subgroup'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Marcasite2.12.2.1FeS2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
ø = 4
Enargite3.2.1.1Cu3AsS4
3 <ø < 4
'Tetrahedrite'3.3.6.1Cu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
AX
Tenorite4.2.3.1CuO
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Azurite16a.2.1.1Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)m(XO4)pZq, where m:p>2:1
Brochantite30.1.3.1Cu4(SO4)(OH)6
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Torbernite40.2a.13.1Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
Basic Anhydrous Molybdates and Tungstates
Lindgrenite48.3.1.1Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Group 49 - HYDRATED MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
Hydrated Normal Molybdates and Tungstates
Ferrimolybdite49.2.1.1Fe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 74 - PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
Modulated Layers with joined strips
Chrysocolla74.3.2.1Cu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Nepheline76.2.1.2Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
'Biotite'-K(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
'Chlorite Group'-
Hematite
var: Specularite
-Fe2O3
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
'Limonite'-(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Stilbite subgroup'-
'Zeolite Group'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
H FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
H LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
H BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
H ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
OOxygen
O TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
O RutileTiO2
O FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
O LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
O NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O TenoriteCuO
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O HematiteFe2O3
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
O ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
O Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
FFluorine
F BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
F FluoriteCaF2
NaSodium
Na NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Si BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
PPhosphorus
P TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
SSulfur
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S ChalcociteCu2S
S CovelliteCuS
S GalenaPbS
S PyriteFeS2
S SphaleriteZnS
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
S EnargiteCu3AsS4
S MarcasiteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
K BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
TiTitanium
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe Hematite (var: Specularite)Fe2O3
Fe MarcasiteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
CuCopper
Cu TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Cu LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CopperCu
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu TenoriteCuO
Cu AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6
Cu ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2O
Cu EnargiteCu3AsS4
Cu TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
AsArsenic
As EnargiteCu3AsS4
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
Mo FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2O
Mo LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6Cu4(X)2Sb4S13
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
UUranium
U TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O

References

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Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
The Resources of Arizona - A Manual of Reliable Information Concerning the Territory, compiled by Patrick Hamilton (1881), Scottsdale, AZ: 47.
Anderson, C.A., and Kupfer, D.H. (1945) Report on the properties of the Amargosa Molybdenum and Copper Corporation, Pima County, Arizona: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report [unnumbered], 20 p., 8 sheets.
U.S. Department of the Interior War Mineral Report. No. 405 (1945) Esperanza Property, Pima County, Arizona.
Tainter, S.L. (1947b), Amargosa (Esperanza) molybdenum-copper property, Pima County, Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Report of Investigation 4016.
Schmidt, H.A., et al (1959), Disseminated deposits at the Esperanza copper mine, in Southern Arizona Guidebook II, Arizona Geological Society Digest: 2: 205.
Kirkemo, H., Anderson, C.A., and Creasey, S.C. (1965), Investigations of Molybdenum Deposits in the Conterminous United States 1942-60, Contributions to Economic Geology, USGS Bull. 1182-E: E12-E13.
Lynch, D.W. (1966), The economic geology of the Esperanza mine and vicinity, in S.R. Titley and C.L. Hicks (editors), Geology of the porphyry copper deposits, southwestern North America, University of Arizona Press, Tucson: 267-279.
Engineering and Mining Journal (1970) Duval Dedicates the Sierrita Open pit: July, 1970.
Engineering and Mining Journal (1970) Sierrita Makes it with Big Equipment: August, 1970.
Keith, Stanton B. (1974), Arizona Bureau of Geology & Mineral Technology, Geological Survey Branch Bull. 189, Index of Mining Properties in Pima County, Arizona: 135 (Table 4).
Aiken, D.M., and West, R.J. (1978) Some geologic aspects of the Sierrita-Esperanza copper-molybdenum deposit, Pima County, Arizona, in Jenney, J.P., and Hauck, H.R., eds., Proceedings of the Porphyry Copper Symposium, Tucson, Arizona, March 18-20, 1976: Arizona Geological Society Digest: 11: 117-128.
Mining Annual Review (1985): 55, 94 & 329.
Niemuth, N.J. & K.A. Phillips (1992), Copper Oxide Resources, Arizona Department of Mines & Mineral Resources Open File Report 92-10: 12 (Table 1).
Sawyer, M.B., Gurmendi, A.C., Daley, M.R., and Howell, S.B. (1992) Principal Deposits of Strategic and Critical Minerals in Arizona, U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication, 334 pp.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 107, 114, 163, 166, 220, 278, 312, 383, 405.
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): Porphyry copper deposits of the world: Database and grade and tonnage models, 2008. US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Arizona Bureau of Mines file data.
MRDS database Dep. ID file #10039594, MRDS ID #M050391; and, Dep. ID #10186590, MAS ID #0040190003.

USGS MRDS Record:10039594

Other Regions, Features and Areas containg this locality

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North America PlateTectonic Plate

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