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Wolfe Creek meteorite crater, Carranya Station, Halls Creek Shire, Western Australia, Australiai
Regional Level Types
Wolfe Creek meteorite craterImpact Crater
Carranya Station- not defined -
Halls Creek ShireShire
Western AustraliaState
AustraliaCountry

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Key
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
19° 10' 18'' South , 127° 47' 43'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Deposit first discovered:
1947
Other/historical names associated with this locality:
Kandimalal; Gandimalal; Wolf Creek crater


The rim diameter averages 880 m and the distance from the rim crest to the present crater floor is 60 m. Weathering of Ni-Fe meteorite fragments have formed the new minerals reevesite, cassidyite and pecoraite.

Located 145 kilometres south of Halls Creek on the edge of the Tanami Desert. It is considered the second largest well preserved meteorite impact crater in the world, caused when a 50,000 tonne meteorite crashed into the planet at high speed. The crater is 800 metres across and is believed to be around 120,000 years old. It was discovered by an aerial survey team in 1947.

Alternatively the local Djaru people state the nearby Wolfe and Stuart Creeks were formed by two rainbow serpents, and the crater is where one emerged from the ground. They call the place Kandimalal or Gandimalal.

Wolfe Creek is named after Robert Wolfe in 1889, a prospector and Halls Creek store owner.

The rim is laterite crust with underlying quartzite, however the impact of the meteorite has caused the quartzite to be overturned, and in some places the laterite is sandwiched between folds of quartzite. The floor of the crater is gypsum, porous, and showing sink-holes following two intersecting stress fractures caused by the impact.

The western slopes of the crater contain rusty 'shale-balls', up
to 250 kg, some loose and others fused to the rock. They are highly weathered iron oxide. Purer nickel-iron fragments have been found up to 4 kilometres south-west of the crater. The meteorites are weathered to goethite and nickelian maghemite, with small amounts of jarosite, apatite, lipscombite, and three type locality species- reevesite, cassidyite and pecoraite.

The main reference suggests the shock of the high velocity impact caused the fragments of meteorite to be more susceptable to weathering. Goethite is the main constituent of these meteorites and contains a small amount of nickel and more minor cobalt. Maghemite is mixed with the goethite, and makes the meteorites magnetic. Nickel is found at 8.7% in the maghemite and minor cobalt. Lipscombite is found as dull green crusts lining lath shaped cavities which were original schreibersite crystals. A small amount of schreibersite remains. Unusually this nickel rich species has weathered to an almost nickel free iron phosphate. It was the second known occurence of the species. Reevesite is bright yellow at this locality and forms as fine grained aggregates lining cavities and cracks. Cassidyite forms thin crusts and small sphericules in cavities and cracks, pale to bright green depending on the amount of nickel present. Pecoraite occurs as green very small curved plate particles, with some achieving a spiral, and formed in hydrothermal conditions.

In the fragments the iron has converted to a ferric state of goethite and maghemite, whereas the nickel has oxidised to a bivalent state. Specimens show a crust surface, and under this a system of radial cracks, often with a cavity in the centre sometimes lined with the rare species mentioned above.

Note: the official name of the meteorite is Wolf Creek (see Meteoritical bulletin https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor/metbull.php?code=24326).

Further Note: Originally named ‘Wolf Creek’ after a local waterway, historical research has revealed that the surname of the person after it was named was in fact‘Wolfe’ (Bevan, 1996).

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Gallery Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


13 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

'Apatite'
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Reference: White, J.S. (Jr) Henderson, E.P., Mason, B. (1967) Secondary Minerals Produced by Weathering of the Wolf [sic] Creek Meteorite, American Mineralogist, 52(7-8), 1190-1197.
Awaruite
Formula: Ni3Fe
Reference: Pedersen, T.P. (1999) Schwertmannite and Awaruite as alteration produucts in Iron Meteorites. 62nd Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting, Johannesburg, South Africa.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: O'Neill, C., & Heine, C. (2005). Reconstructing the Wolfe Creek meteorite impact: deep structure of the crater and effects on target rock. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 52(4-5), 699-709.
Cassidyite (TL)
Formula: Ca2Ni(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: HB4 (2000). White, J.S. (Jr) Henderson, E.P., Mason, B. (1967) Secondary Minerals Produced by Weathering of the Wolf [sic] Creek Meteorite, American Mineralogist, 52(7-8), 1190-1197.
Goethite
Formula: α-Fe3+O(OH)
Reference: White, J.S. (Jr) Henderson, E.P., Mason, B. (1967) Secondary Minerals Produced by Weathering of the Wolf [sic] Creek Meteorite, American Mineralogist, 52(7-8), 1190-1197.
Gypsum
Formula: CaSO4 · 2H2O
Reference: O'Neill, C., Heine, C. (2005) Reconstructing the Wolfe Creek meteorite impact: deep structure of the crater and effects on target rock. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 52(4-5), 699-709.
Jarosite
Formula: KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: White, J.S. (Jr) Henderson, E.P., Mason, B. (1967) Secondary Minerals Produced by Weathering of the Wolf [sic] Creek Meteorite, American Mineralogist, 52(7-8), 1190-1197.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: O'Neill, C., Heine, C. (2005) Reconstructing the Wolfe Creek meteorite impact: deep structure of the crater and effects on target rock. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 52(4-5), 699-709.
Lipscombite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Reference: White, J.S. (Jr) Henderson, E.P., Mason, B. (1967) Secondary Minerals Produced by Weathering of the Wolf [sic] Creek Meteorite, American Mineralogist, 52(7-8), 1190-1197.
Maghemite
Formula: (Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4
Reference: White, J.S. (Jr) Henderson, E.P., Mason, B. (1967) Secondary Minerals Produced by Weathering of the Wolf [sic] Creek Meteorite, American Mineralogist, 52(7-8), 1190-1197.
Pecoraite (TL)
Formula: Ni3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Type Locality:
Reference: MM 44 (1981), 153. HB2/2 (1995). Faust, G.T., Fahey, J.J., Mason, B., Dwirnik, E.J. (1969) Pecoraite, Ni6Si4O10(OH)8, Nickel Analog of Clinochrysotile, Formed in the Wolf Creek Meteorite. Science, 165(38), 59-60.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Description: Shocked quartz in Devonian sandstones.
Reference: O'Neill, C., Heine, C. (2005) Reconstructing the Wolfe Creek meteorite impact: deep structure of the crater and effects on target rock. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 52(4-5), 699-709.
Reevesite (TL)
Formula: Ni6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: HB3 (1997). White, J.S. (Jr) Henderson, E.P., Mason, B. (1967) Secondary Minerals Produced by Weathering of the Wolf [sic] Creek Meteorite, American Mineralogist, 52(7-8), 1190-1197. De Waal, S.A., Viljoen, E.A. (1971) Nickel minerals from Barberton, SOuth Africa: IV. Reevesite, a member of the Hydrotalcite group. The American Mineralogist, 56, 1077-1081.
Schreibersite
Formula: (Fe,Ni)3P
Reference: White, J.S. (Jr) Henderson, E.P., Mason, B. (1967) Secondary Minerals Produced by Weathering of the Wolf [sic] Creek Meteorite, American Mineralogist, 52(7-8), 1190-1197.

Gallery:

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Awaruite1.AE.20Ni3Fe
Schreibersite1.BD.05(Fe,Ni)3P
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Goethite4.00.α-Fe3+O(OH)
Maghemite4.BB.15(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Reevesite (TL)5.DA.50Ni6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Gypsum7.CD.40CaSO4 · 2H2O
Jarosite7.BC.10KFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Cassidyite (TL)8.CG.05Ca2Ni(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Lipscombite8.BB.90Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Group 9 - Silicates
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Pecoraite (TL)9.ED.15Ni3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Awaruite1.1.11.4Ni3Fe
Schreibersite1.1.21.2(Fe,Ni)3P
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Maghemite4.3.7.1(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe3+2O4
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
XO(OH)
Goethite6.1.1.2α-Fe3+O(OH)
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 16b - HYDRATED CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Reevesite (TL)16b.6.3.1Ni6Fe3+2(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4·xH2O
Gypsum29.6.3.1CaSO4 · 2H2O
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Jarosite30.2.5.1KFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O
Cassidyite (TL)40.2.2.4Ca2Ni(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)3(XO4)2Zq
Lipscombite41.10.2.1Fe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Pecoraite (TL)71.1.2d.4Ni3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
'Apatite'-Ca5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H CassidyiteCa2Ni(PO4)2 · 2H2O
H PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
H ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
H Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
H JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
H ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
H LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
CCarbon
C ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O CassidyiteCa2Ni(PO4)2 · 2H2O
O PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
O ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
O Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe23+O4
O QuartzSiO2
O Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
O JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
O ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
O LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O CalciteCaCO3
O GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FFluorine
F ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
AlAluminium
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SiSilicon
Si PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
PPhosphorus
P CassidyiteCa2Ni(PO4)2 · 2H2O
P ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
P LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
P Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
SSulfur
S JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
S GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
ClChlorine
Cl ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
KPotassium
K JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca CassidyiteCa2Ni(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca ApatiteCa5(PO4)3(Cl/F/OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
FeIron
Fe ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Fe Maghemite(Fe3+0.670.33)Fe23+O4
Fe Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
Fe AwaruiteNi3Fe
Fe JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6
Fe LipscombiteFe2+Fe23+(PO4)2(OH)2
Fe Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P
NiNickel
Ni CassidyiteCa2Ni(PO4)2 · 2H2O
Ni PecoraiteNi3(Si2O5)(OH)4
Ni ReevesiteNi6Fe23+(OH)16(CO3) · 4H2O
Ni AwaruiteNi3Fe
Ni Schreibersite(Fe,Ni)3P

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A) In-text Citation No.
Faust, G.T., Fahey, J.J., Mason, B., Dwirnik, E.J. (1969) Pecoraite, Ni6Si4O10(OH)8, Nickel Analog of Clinochrysotile, Formed in the Wolf Creek Meteorite. Science, 165(38), 59-60.
Bevan, A., McNamara, K. (1993) Australia's Meteorite Craters. Western Australian Museum (1993), 27 pages.
Pedersen, T.P. (1999) Schwertmannite and Awaruite as alteration produucts in Iron Meteorites. 62nd Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting, Johannesburg, South Africa.
O'Neill, C., Heine, C. (2005) Reconstructing the Wolfe Creek meteorite impact: deep structure of the crater and effects on target rock. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 52(4-5), 699-709.
Bevan, A., McNamara, K. (2009) Australia's Meteorite Craters. Western Australian Museum (2009), 95 pages.
Barrows, T.T., Magee, J., Miller, G., Fifield, L.K. (2019) The age of Wolfe Creek meteorite crater (Kandimalal), Western Australia. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 54(11), 2686-2697.
Bevan, A.W.R. (1996) Australian crater forming meteorites: AGSO, Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, Vol. 16, 421–429.
White, J.S. (Jr) Henderson, E.P., Mason, B. (1967) Secondary Minerals Produced by Weathering of the Wolf [sic] Creek Meteorite, American Mineralogist, 52(7-8), 1190-1197.
Hawke, P. (2003) Geophysical investigation of the Wolfe creek meteorite crater. Geological Survey of Western Australia, Record 2003/10, 9 pages.

External Links


Other Regions, Features and Areas containing this locality

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This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
 
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