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Pleistocene

Hierarchy:Phanerozoic Cenozoic  Quaternary
   Pleistocene
Classification:Epoch (as per International Commission on Stratigraphy)
Top:0.01143 Ma
Base:2.588 Ma
Preceeds:Holocene
Follows:Neogene Pliocene  Piacenzian
Primary Divisions:Late PleistoceneMiddle PleistoceneCalabrianGelasian
Fossil Record

Data via PaleoBioDB


Taxa Count Key
First appearance
Extinction
First appearance and extinction
Related precursors
KingdomPhylumClassTaxa Count
AnimaliaAnnelida Clitellata4
AnimaliaAnnelida Polychaeta60
AnimaliaArthropoda Arachnida526
AnimaliaArthropoda Branchiopoda10
AnimaliaArthropoda Cephalocarida1
AnimaliaArthropoda Chilopoda17
AnimaliaArthropoda Insecta4,821
AnimaliaArthropoda Malacostraca1,421
AnimaliaArthropoda Maxillopoda82
AnimaliaArthropoda Ostracoda237
AnimaliaArthropoda Pauropoda3
AnimaliaArthropoda Pycnogonida1
AnimaliaArthropoda Remipedia1
AnimaliaArthropoda Symphyla5
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Craniata7
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Lingulata12
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Rhynchonellata200
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Strophomenata7
AnimaliaBryozoa Gymnolaemata556
AnimaliaBryozoa Stenolaemata87
AnimaliaChordata Actinopterygii4
AnimaliaChordata Ascidiacea1
AnimaliaChordata Aves2,330
AnimaliaChordata Mammalia2,991
AnimaliaChordata Reptilia585
AnimaliaCnidaria Anthozoa721
AnimaliaCnidaria Cubozoa1
AnimaliaCnidaria Hydrozoa17
AnimaliaCnidaria Scyphozoa1
AnimaliaEchinodermata Asteroidea63
AnimaliaEchinodermata Crinoidea30
AnimaliaEchinodermata Echinoidea236
AnimaliaEchinodermata Holothuroidea36
AnimaliaEchinodermata Ophiuroidea48
AnimaliaHemichordata Enteropneusta4
AnimaliaHemichordata Pterobranchia1
AnimaliaMollusca Bivalvia1,629
AnimaliaMollusca Cephalopoda17
AnimaliaMollusca Gastropoda2,920
AnimaliaMollusca Monoplacophora1
AnimaliaMollusca Polyplacophora64
AnimaliaMollusca Scaphopoda41
AnimaliaPlatyhelminthes Trematoda1
AnimaliaPorifera Calcarea5
AnimaliaPorifera Hexactinellida39
AnimaliaTardigrada Eutardigrada5
BacteriaCyanobacteria Cyanophyceae1
ChromistaForaminifera Globothalamea317
ChromistaForaminifera Monothalamea29
ChromistaForaminifera Tubothalamea50
ChromistaHaptophyta Prymnesiophyceae24
ChromistaMyzozoa Dinophyceae2
ChromistaOchrophyta Bacillariophyceae17
ChromistaOchrophyta Chrysophyceae1
ChromistaOchrophyta Dictyochophyceae2
ChromistaRadiozoa Polycystina179
PlantaeAnthocerotophyta Anthocerotopsida1
PlantaeBryophyta Bryopsida2
PlantaeBryophyta Sphagnopsida2
PlantaeCharophyta Charophyceae4
PlantaeCharophyta Zygnematophyceae2
PlantaeChlorophyta Chlorophyceae5
PlantaeChlorophyta Trebouxiophyceae1
PlantaeChlorophyta Ulvophyceae17
PlantaeMarchantiophyta Marchantiopsida2
PlantaeRhodophyta Florideophyceae108
PlantaeRhodophyta Rhodophyceae1
PlantaeTracheophyta Cycadopsida4
PlantaeTracheophyta Ginkgoopsida4
PlantaeTracheophyta Gnetopsida3
PlantaeTracheophyta Liliopsida32
PlantaeTracheophyta Lycopodiopsida6
PlantaeTracheophyta Magnoliopsida190
PlantaeTracheophyta Pinopsida20
PlantaeTracheophyta Polypodiopsida30
Flourishing and then extinction of many large mammals (Pleistocene megafauna). Evolution of anatomically modern humans.

Quaternary Ice Age continues with glaciations and interstadials (and the accompanying fluctuations from 100 to 300 ppmv in atmospheric CO2 levels), further intensification of Icehouse Earth conditions, roughly 1.6 Ma.

Last glacial maximum (30000 years ago), last glacial period (18000–15000 years ago). Dawn of human stone-age cultures, with increasing technical complexity relative to previous ice age cultures, such as engravings and clay statues (e.g. Venus of Lespugue), particularly in the Mediterranean and Europe.

Lake Toba supervolcano erupts 75000 years before present, causing a volcanic winter that possibly pushes humanity to the brink of extinction. Pleistocene ends with Oldest Dryas, Older Dryas/Allerød and Younger Dryas climate events, with Younger Dryas forming the boundary with the Holocene.
 

Geologic Events

Event NameTypeAgeArea
Island Park Caldera super-eruptionVolcanic Activity2.1 MaIdaho and Wyoming, USA
Andean orogeny (ongoing)OrogenyMaximum Age: 200 MaSouth America


Overview of geological time

List all geological events
 
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