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Pleistocene

Hierarchy:Phanerozoic Cenozoic  Quaternary
   Pleistocene
Classification:Epoch (as per International Commission on Stratigraphy)
Top:0.01143 Ma
Base:2.588 Ma
Preceeds:Holocene
Follows:Neogene Pliocene  Piacenzian
Primary Divisions:Late PleistoceneChibanianCalabrianGelasian
Fossil Record

Data via PaleoBioDB


Taxa Count Key
First appearance
Extinction
First appearance and extinction
Related precursors
KingdomPhylumClassTaxa Count
AnimaliaAnnelida Clitellata4
AnimaliaAnnelida Polychaeta59
AnimaliaArthropoda Arachnida528
AnimaliaArthropoda Branchiopoda10
AnimaliaArthropoda Cephalocarida1
AnimaliaArthropoda Chilopoda17
AnimaliaArthropoda Diplopoda39
AnimaliaArthropoda Entognatha4
AnimaliaArthropoda Hexanauplia1
AnimaliaArthropoda Insecta4,826
AnimaliaArthropoda Malacostraca1,422
AnimaliaArthropoda Maxillopoda82
AnimaliaArthropoda Merostomata1
AnimaliaArthropoda Ostracoda237
AnimaliaArthropoda Pauropoda3
AnimaliaArthropoda Pycnogonida1
AnimaliaArthropoda Remipedia1
AnimaliaArthropoda Symphyla6
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Craniata7
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Lingulata13
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Rhynchonellata201
AnimaliaBrachiopoda Strophomenata7
AnimaliaBryozoa Gymnolaemata556
AnimaliaBryozoa Phylactolaemata1
AnimaliaBryozoa Stenolaemata87
AnimaliaChordata Actinopterygii219
AnimaliaChordata Amphibia25
AnimaliaChordata Ascidiacea1
AnimaliaChordata Aves2,333
AnimaliaChordata Cephalaspidomorphi1
AnimaliaChordata Elasmobranchii147
AnimaliaChordata Holocephali3
AnimaliaChordata Mammalia2,996
AnimaliaChordata Myxini1
AnimaliaChordata Reptilia599
AnimaliaChordata Sarcopterygii5
AnimaliaCnidaria Anthozoa722
AnimaliaCnidaria Cubozoa1
AnimaliaCnidaria Hydrozoa17
AnimaliaCnidaria Scyphozoa2
AnimaliaEchinodermata Asteroidea63
AnimaliaEchinodermata Crinoidea30
AnimaliaEchinodermata Echinoidea238
AnimaliaEchinodermata Holothuroidea36
AnimaliaEchinodermata Ophiuroidea48
AnimaliaHemichordata Enteropneusta4
AnimaliaHemichordata Pterobranchia2
AnimaliaMollusca Bivalvia1,637
AnimaliaMollusca Cephalopoda18
AnimaliaMollusca Gastropoda2,936
AnimaliaMollusca Monoplacophora1
AnimaliaMollusca Polyplacophora64
AnimaliaMollusca Scaphopoda41
AnimaliaNematoda Adenophorea3
AnimaliaNematoda Secernentea2
AnimaliaPlatyhelminthes Trematoda1
AnimaliaPorifera Calcarea6
AnimaliaPorifera Demospongiae20
AnimaliaPorifera Hexactinellida39
AnimaliaPorifera Homoscleromorpha1
AnimaliaRotifera Eurotatoria2
AnimaliaTardigrada Eutardigrada5
AnimaliaTardigrada Heterotardigrada1
BacteriaCyanobacteria Cyanophyceae1
ChromistaForaminifera Globothalamea319
ChromistaForaminifera Monothalamea29
ChromistaForaminifera Tubothalamea67
ChromistaHaptophyta Prymnesiophyceae24
ChromistaMyzozoa Dinophyceae7
ChromistaOchrophyta Bacillariophyceae20
ChromistaOchrophyta Chrysophyceae1
ChromistaOchrophyta Dictyochophyceae4
ChromistaOchrophyta Mediophyceae1
ChromistaOchrophyta Phaeophyceae3
ChromistaRadiozoa Polycystina184
FungiAscomycota Dothideomycetes3
FungiAscomycota Eurotiomycetes1
FungiAscomycota Lecanoromycetes1
FungiAscomycota Sordariomycetes2
FungiBasidiomycota Agaricomycetes5
PlantaeAnthocerotophyta Anthocerotopsida1
PlantaeBryophyta Bryopsida2
PlantaeBryophyta Sphagnopsida2
PlantaeCharophyta Charophyceae4
PlantaeCharophyta Zygnematophyceae2
PlantaeChlorophyta Chlorophyceae5
PlantaeChlorophyta Trebouxiophyceae1
PlantaeChlorophyta Ulvophyceae17
PlantaeMarchantiophyta Marchantiopsida2
PlantaeRhodophyta Florideophyceae108
PlantaeRhodophyta Rhodophyceae1
PlantaeTracheophyta Cycadopsida9
PlantaeTracheophyta Ginkgoopsida4
PlantaeTracheophyta Gnetopsida6
PlantaeTracheophyta Liliopsida65
PlantaeTracheophyta Lycopodiopsida9
PlantaeTracheophyta Magnoliopsida464
PlantaeTracheophyta Pinopsida54
PlantaeTracheophyta Polypodiopsida55
Flourishing and then extinction of many large mammals (Pleistocene megafauna). Evolution of anatomically modern humans.

Quaternary Ice Age continues with glaciations and interstadials (and the accompanying fluctuations from 100 to 300 ppmv in atmospheric CO2 levels), further intensification of Icehouse Earth conditions, roughly 1.6 Ma.

Last glacial maximum (30000 years ago), last glacial period (18000–15000 years ago). Dawn of human stone-age cultures, with increasing technical complexity relative to previous ice age cultures, such as engravings and clay statues (e.g. Venus of Lespugue), particularly in the Mediterranean and Europe.

Lake Toba supervolcano erupts 75000 years before present, causing a volcanic winter that possibly pushes humanity to the brink of extinction. Pleistocene ends with Oldest Dryas, Older Dryas/Allerød and Younger Dryas climate events, with Younger Dryas forming the boundary with the Holocene.
 

Geologic Events

Event NameTypeAgeArea
Island Park Caldera super-eruptionVolcanic Activity2.1 MaIdaho and Wyoming, USA
Andean orogeny (ongoing)OrogenyMaximum Age: 200 MaSouth America


Overview of geological time

List all geological events
 
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